traffic (AORN 2006; Bartley 1993). If it is necessary to use an operating room for other purposes, it is imperative that the room be returned to an appropriate level of hygiene before its use for major survival surgery.

Generally, agricultural animals maintained for biomedical research should undergo surgery with techniques and in facilities compatible with the guidelines set forth in this section. However, some minor and emergency procedures commonly performed in clinical veterinary practice and in commercial agricultural settings may take place under field conditions. Even when conducted in an agricultural setting, however, these procedures require the use of appropriate aseptic technique, sedatives, analgesics, anesthetics, and conditions commensurate with the risk to the animal’s health and well-being.

Surgical Procedures

Surgical procedures are categorized as major or minor and, in the laboratory setting, can be further divided into survival and nonsurvival. As a general guideline, major survival surgery (e.g., laparotomy, thoracotomy, joint replacement, and limb amputation) penetrates and exposes a body cavity, produces substantial impairment of physical or physiologic functions, or involves extensive tissue dissection or transection (Brown et al. 1993). Minor survival surgery does not expose a body cavity and causes little or no physical impairment; this category includes wound suturing, peripheral vessel cannulation, percutaneous biopsy, routine agricultural animal procedures such as castration, and most procedures routinely done on an “outpatient” basis in veterinary clinical practice. Animals recovering from these minor procedures typically do not show significant signs of post-operative pain, have minimal complications, and return to normal function in a relatively short time. When attempting to categorize a particular surgical procedure, the following should be considered: the potential for pain and other postoperative complications; the nature of the procedure as well as the size and location of the incision(s); the duration of the procedure; and the species, health status, and age of the animal.

Laparoscopic surgeries and some procedures associated with neuroscience research (e.g., craniotomy, neurectomy) may be classified as major or minor surgery depending on their impact on the animal (Devitt et al. 2005; Hancock et al. 2005; NRC 2003; Perret-Gentil et al. 1999, 2000). For example, laparoscopic techniques with minimal associated trauma and sequelae (e.g., avian sexing and oocyte collection) could be considered minor, whereas others (e.g., hepatic lobectomy and cholecystectomy) should be considered major. Although minor laparoscopic procedures are often performed on an “outpatient” basis, appropriate aseptic technique, instruments, anesthesia, and analgesia are necessary. Whether a laparoscopic procedure is deemed



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