animal science and medicine are rapidly changing and evolving disciplines. The institution should provide opportunities and support for regular professional development and continuing education to ensure both that professional staff are knowledgeable about the latest practices and procedures and that laboratory animals receive high-quality care (Colby et al. 2007).

Animal Care Personnel Personnel caring for animals should be appropriately trained (see Appendix A, Education), and the institution should provide for formal and/or on-the-job training to facilitate effective implementation of the Program and the humane care and use of animals. Staff should receive training and/or have the experience to complete the tasks for which they are responsible. According to the Program scope, personnel with expertise in various disciplines (e.g., animal husbandry, administration, veterinary medical technology) may be required.

There are a number of options for training animal care personnel and technicians (Pritt and Duffee 2007). Many colleges have accredited programs in veterinary technology (AVMA 2010); most are 2-year programs that award Associate of Science degrees, some are 4-year programs that award Bachelor of Science degrees. Nondegree training, via certification programs for laboratory animal technicians and technologists, is available from the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), and there are various commercially available training materials appropriate for self-guided study (Appendix A).

Personnel caring for laboratory animals should also regularly engage in continuing education activities and should be encouraged to participate in local and national laboratory animal science meetings and in other relevant professional organizations. On-the-job training, supplemented with institution-sponsored discussion and training programs and reference materials applicable to their jobs and the species in their care, should be provided to each employee responsible for animal care (Kreger 1995).

Coordinators of institutional training programs can seek assistance from the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), the Laboratory Animal Welfare and Training Exchange (LAWTE), AALAS, and ILAR (NRC 1991). The Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals by the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC 1993) and guidelines from other countries are valuable additions to the libraries of laboratory animal scientists (Appendix A).

The Research Team The institution should provide appropriate education and training to members of research teams—including principal investigators, study directors, research technicians, postdoctoral fellows, students, and visiting scientists—to ensure that they have the necessary knowledge and expertise for the specific animal procedures proposed and the species

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