used (Conarello and Shepard 2007). Training should be tailored to the particular needs of research groups; however, all research groups should receive training in animal care and use legislation, IACUC function, ethics of animal use and the concepts of the Three Rs, methods for reporting concerns about animal use, occupational health and safety issues pertaining to animal use, animal handling, aseptic surgical technique, anesthesia and analgesia, euthanasia, and other subjects, as required by statute. Continuing education programs should be offered to reinforce training and provide updates that reflect changes in technology, legislation, and other relevant areas. Frequency of training opportunities should ensure that all animal users have adequate training before beginning animal work.

The IACUC It is the institution’s responsibility to ensure that IACUC members are provided with training opportunities to understand their work and role. Such training should include formal orientation to introduce new members to the institution’s Program; relevant legislation, regulations, guidelines, and policies; animal facilities and laboratories where animal use occurs; and the processes of animal protocol and program review (Greene et al. 2007). Ongoing opportunities to enhance their understanding of animal care and use in science should also be provided. For example, IACUC members may meet with animal care personnel and research teams; be provided access to relevant journals, materials, and web-based training; and be given opportunities to attend meetings or workshops.

Occupational Health and Safety of Personnel

Each institution must establish and maintain an occupational health and safety program (OHSP) as an essential part of the overall Program of animal care and use (CFR 1984a,b,c; DHHS 2009; PHS 2002). The OHSP must be consistent with federal, state, and local regulations and should focus on maintaining a safe and healthy workplace (Gonder 2002; Newcomer 2002; OSHA 1998a). The nature of the OHSP will depend on the facility, research activities, hazards, and animal species involved. The National Research Council’s publication Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (NRC 1997) contains guidelines and references for establishing and maintaining an effective, comprehensive OHSP (also see Appendix A). An effective OHSP requires coordination between the research program (as represented by the investigator), the animal care and use Program (as represented by the AV, IO, and IACUC), the environmental health and safety program, occupational health services, and administration (e.g., human resources, finance, and facility maintenance personnel). Establishment of a safety committee may facilitate communication and promote ongoing evaluation of health and safety in the workplace. In some cases

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