and procedures should be used for bedding disposal. Safety equipment should be properly maintained and its function periodically validated. Appropriate methods should be used for assessing and monitoring exposure to potentially hazardous biologic, chemical, and physical agents where required (e.g., ionizing radiation) or where the possibility of exceeding permissible exposure limits exists (CFR 1984b).

Personnel Training As a general rule, safety depends on trained personnel who rigorously follow safe practices. Personnel at risk should be provided with clearly defined procedures and, in specific situations, personal protective equipment to safely conduct their duties, understand the hazards involved, and be proficient in implementing the required safeguards. They should be trained regarding zoonoses, chemical, biologic, and physical hazards (e.g., radiation and allergies), unusual conditions or agents that might be part of experimental procedures (e.g., the use of human tissue in immunocompromised animals), handling of waste materials, personal hygiene, the appropriate use of PPE, and other considerations (e.g., precautions to be taken during pregnancy, illness, or immunosuppression) as appropriate to the risk imposed by their workplace.

Personal Hygiene The use of good personal hygiene will often reduce the possibility of occupational injury and cross contamination. Appropriate policies should be established and enforced, and the institution should supply suitable attire and PPE (e.g., gloves, masks, face shields, headcovers, coats, coveralls, shoes or shoe covers) for use in the animal facility and laboratories in which animals are used. Soiled attire should be disposed of, laundered, or decontaminated by the institution as appropriate, and may require that special provisions be implemented if outside vendors are used. Personnel should wash and/or disinfect their hands and change clothing as often as necessary to maintain good personal hygiene. Outer garments worn in the animal rooms should not be worn outside the animal facility unless covered (NRC 1997). Personnel should not be permitted to eat, drink, use tobacco products, apply cosmetics, or handle or apply contact lenses in rooms and laboratories where animals are housed or used (DHHS 2009; NRC 1997; OSHA 1998a).

Animal Experimentation Involving Hazards When selecting specific safeguards for animal experimentation with hazardous agents, careful attention should be given to procedures for animal care and housing, storage and distribution of the agents, dose preparation and administration, body fluid and tissue handling, waste and carcass disposal, items that might be used temporarily and removed from the site (e.g., written records, experimental devices, sample vials), and personal protection.

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