et al. 2002). PPE should be used to supplement, not replace, engineering or process controls (Harrison 2001; Reeb-Whitaker et al. 1999). If PPE for respiratory protection is necessary, appropriate fit testing and training should be provided.

Zoonosis surveillance should be a part of an OHSP (DHHS 2009; NRC 1997). Personnel should be instructed to notify their supervisors of potential or known exposures and of suspected health hazards and illnesses. Nonhuman primate diseases that are transmissible to humans can be serious hazards (NRC 2003a). Animal technicians, veterinarians, investigators, students, research technicians, maintenance workers, and others who have contact with nonhuman primates or their tissues and body fluids or who have duties in nonhuman primate housing areas should be routinely screened for tuberculosis. Because of the potential for exposure to Macacine herpesvirus 1 (formerly Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 or Herpes B virus), personnel who work with or handle biologic samples (blood and tissues) from macaques should have access to and be instructed in the use of bite and scratch emergency care stations (Cohen et al. 2002). Injuries associated with macaques, their tissues or body fluids, or caging and equipment with which the animals have had direct contact, should be carefully evaluated and appropriate postexposure treatment and follow-up implemented (ibid.; NRC 2003a).

Clear procedures should be established for reporting all accidents, bites, scratches, and allergic reactions (NRC 1997), and medical care for such incidents should be readily available (Cohen et al. 2002; DHHS 2009).

Personnel Security

While contingency plans normally address natural disasters, they should also take into account the threats that criminal activities such as personnel harassment and assault, facility trespassing, arson, and vandalism pose to laboratory animals, research personnel, equipment and facilities, and biomedical research at the institution. Preventive measures should be considered, including preemployment screening and physical and information technology security (Miller 2007).

Investigating and Reporting Animal Welfare Concerns

Safeguarding animal welfare is the responsibility of every individual associated with the Program. The institution must develop methods for reporting and investigating animal welfare concerns, and employees should be aware of the importance of and mechanisms for reporting animal welfare concerns. In the United States, responsibility for review and investigation of these concerns rests with the IO and the IACUC. Response to such reports should include communication of findings to the concerned



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