• Veterinary care must be provided if lesions or illnesses associated with restraint are observed. The presence of lesions, illness, or severe behavioral change often necessitates the temporary or permanent removal of the animal from restraint.

  • The purpose of the restraint and its duration should be clearly explained to personnel involved with the study.

Multiple Survival Surgical Procedures Surgical procedures in the laboratory setting may be categorized as major or minor (USDA 1985). Whether a procedure is major or minor should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, as determined by the veterinarian and IACUC (NRC 2003b; Silverman et al. 2007; for additional discussion see Chapter 4, Surgical Procedures).

Regardless of classification, multiple surgical procedures on a single animal should be evaluated to determine their impact on the animal’s wellbeing. Multiple major surgical procedures on a single animal are acceptable only if they are (1) included in and essential components of a single research project or protocol, (2) scientifically justified by the investigator, or (3) necessary for clinical reasons. Conservation of scarce animal resources may justify the conduct of multiple major surgeries on a single animal, but the application of such a practice on a single animal used in separate protocols is discouraged and should be reviewed critically by the IACUC. When applicable, the IO must submit a request to the USDA/APHIS and receive approval in order to allow a regulated animal to undergo multiple major survival surgical procedures in separate unrelated research protocols (USDA 1985, 1997a). Justifications for allowing animals not regulated by the USDA to undergo multiple survival procedures that meet the above criteria should conform to those required for regulated species. If multiple survival surgery is approved, the IACUC should pay particular attention to animal well-being through continuing evaluation of outcomes. Cost savings alone is not an adequate reason for performing multiple major survival surgical procedures.

Some procedures characterized as minor may induce substantial postprocedural pain or impairment and should similarly be scientifically justified if performed more than once in a single animal.

Food and Fluid Regulation Regulation of food or fluid intake may be required for the conduct of some physiological, neuroscience, and behavioral research protocols. The regulation process may entail scheduled access to food or fluid sources, so an animal consumes as much as desired at regular intervals, or restriction, in which the total volume of food or fluid consumed is strictly monitored and controlled (NRC 2003b). The objective when these studies are being planned and executed should be to use the

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