Temperature and Humidity

Maintenance of body temperature within normal circadian variation is necessary for animal well-being. Animals should be housed within temperature and humidity ranges appropriate for the species, to which they can adapt with minimal stress and physiologic alteration.

The ambient temperature range in which thermoregulation occurs without the need to increase metabolic heat production or activate evaporative heat loss mechanisms is called the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and is bounded by the lower and upper critical temperatures (LCTs and UCTs; Gordon 2005). To maintain body temperature under a given environmental temperature animals adjust physiologically (including their metabolism) and behaviorally (including their activity level and resource use). For example, the TNZ of mice ranges between 26°C and 34°C (Gordon 1993); at lower temperatures, building nests and huddling for resting and sleeping allow them to thermoregulate by behaviorally controlling their microclimate. Although mice choose temperatures below their LCT of 26°C during activity periods, they strongly prefer temperatures above their LCT for maintenance and resting behaviors (Gaskill et al. 2009; Gordon 2004; Gordon et al. 1998). Similar LCT values are found in the literature for other rodents, varying between 26-30°C for rats and 28-32°C for gerbils (Gordon 1993). The LCTs of rabbits (15-20°C; Gonzalez et al. 1971) and cats and dogs (20-25°C) are slightly lower, while those of nonhuman primates and farm animals vary depending on the species. In general, dry-bulb temperatures in animal rooms should be set below the animals’ LCT to avoid heat stress. This, in turn, means that animals should be provided with adequate resources for thermoregulation (nesting material, shelter) to avoid cold stress. Adequate resources for thermoregulation are particularly important for newborn animals whose LCT is normally considerably higher than that of their adult conspecifics.

Environmental temperature and relative humidity can be affected by husbandry and housing design and can differ considerably between primary and secondary enclosures as well as within primary enclosures. Factors that contribute to variation in temperature and humidity between and within enclosures include housing design; construction material; enrichment devices such as shelters and nesting material; use of filter tops; number, age, type, and size of the animals in each enclosure; forced ventilation of enclosures; and the type and frequency of contact bedding changes (Besch 1980).

Exposure to wide temperature and humidity fluctuations or extremes may result in behavioral, physiologic, and morphologic changes, which might negatively affect animal well-being and research performance as well as outcomes of research protocols (Garrard et al. 1974; Gordon 1990,



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