able to exhaust these systems directly into the building’s exhaust system to reduce heat load and macroenvironmental contamination.

Static isolation caging (without forced ventilation), such as that used in some types of rodent housing, restricts ventilation (Keller et al. 1989). To compensate, it may be necessary to adjust husbandry practices, including sanitation and cage change frequency, selection of contact bedding, placement of cages in a secondary enclosure, animal densities in cages, and/or decrease in macroenvironmental relative humidity to improve the microenvironment and heat dissipation.

The use of recycled air to ventilate animal rooms may save energy but entails risks. Because many animal pathogens can be airborne or travel on fomites (e.g., dust), exhaust air recycled into HVAC systems that serve multiple rooms presents a risk of cross contamination. Recycling air from nonanimal use areas (e.g., some human occupancy areas and food, bedding, and supply storage areas) may require less intensive filtration or conditioning and pose less risk of infection. The risks in some situations, however, might be too great to consider recycling (e.g., in the case of nonhuman primates and biohazard areas). The exhaust air to be recycled should be filtered, at minimum, with 85-95% ASHRAE efficient filters to remove airborne particles before it is recycled (NAFA 1996). Depending on the air source, composition, and proportion of recycled air used (e.g., ammonia and other gases emitted from excrement in recirculating air from animal rooms), consideration should also be given to filtering volatile substances. In areas that require filtration to ensure personnel and/or animal safety (e.g., hazardous containment holding), filter efficiency, loading, and integrity should be assessed.

The successful operation of any HVAC system requires regular preventive maintenance and evaluation, including measurement of its function at the level of the secondary enclosure. Such measurements should include supply and exhaust air volumes, fluctuation in temperature and relative humidity, and air pressure differentials between spaces as well as critical mechanical operating parameters.


Light can affect the physiology, morphology, and behavior of various animals (Azar et al. 2008; Brainard et al. 1986; Erkert and Grober 1986; Newbold et al. 1991; Tucker et al. 1984). Potential photostressors include inappropriate photoperiod, photointensity, and spectral quality of the light (Stoskopf 1983).

Numerous factors can affect animals’ needs for light and should be considered when an appropriate illumination level is being established for an animal holding room. These include light intensity and wavelength as

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