>5

<75

18.0 (1.62)

Up to 200

36.0 (3.24)

Up to 350

54.0 (4.86)

Up to 500

72.0 (6.48)

Up to 650

93.0 (8.37)

>650c

≥108.0 (≥9.72)

Horses

144.0 (12.96)

Ponies

 

 

1-4

72.0 (6.48)

>4/Pen

≤200

60.0 (5.4)

>200c

≥72.0 (≥6.48)

*The interpretation of this table should take into consideration the performance indices described in the text beginning on page 55.

aTo convert kilograms to pounds, multiply by 2.2.

bFloor area configuration should be such that animals can turn around and move freely without touching food or water troughs, have ready access to food and water, and have sufficient space to comfortably rest away from areas soiled by urine and feces (see text).

cLarger animals may require more space to meet performance standards including sufficient space to turn around and move freely (see text).

the table to enable them to turn around and move freely without touching food or water troughs, have ready access to food and water, and have sufficient space to comfortably rest away from areas soiled by urine and feces.

Terrestrial Management

Behavioral and Social Management

Activity Animal Activity typically implies motor activity but also includes cognitive activity and social interaction. Animals’ natural behavior and activity profile should be considered during evaluation of suitable housing or behavioral assessment.

Animals maintained in a laboratory environment are generally restricted in their activities compared to free-ranging animals. Forced activity for reasons other than attempts to meet therapeutic or approved protocol objectives should be avoided. High levels of repetitive, unvarying behavior (stereotypies, compulsive behaviors) may reflect disruptions of normal behavioral control mechanisms due to housing conditions or management practices (Garner 2005; NRC 1998a).

Dogs, cats, rabbits, and many other animals benefit from positive human interaction (Augustsson et al. 2002; Bayne et al. 1993; McCune 1997; Poole 1998; Rennie and Buchanan-Smith 2006; Rollin 1990). Dogs can be given



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