ment) may be considered in some situations (Kaye et al. 1998; Murphy et al. 2009). Procedures for on-site packaging, labeling, transportation, and storage of these wastes should be integrated into occupational health and safety policies (Richmond et al. 2003).

Hazardous wastes that are toxic, carcinogenic, flammable, corrosive, reactive, or otherwise unstable should be placed in properly labeled containers and disposed of as recommended by occupational health and safety specialists. In some circumstances, these wastes can be consolidated or blended. Sharps and glass should be disposed of in a manner that will prevent injury to waste handlers.


Pest Control Programs designed to prevent, control, or eliminate the presence of or infestation by pests are essential in an animal environment. A regularly scheduled and documented program of control and monitoring should be implemented. The ideal program prevents the entry of vermin and eliminates their harborage in the facility (Anadon et al. 2009; Easterbrook et al. 2008). For animals in outdoor facilities, consideration should be given to eliminating or minimizing the potential risk associated with pests and predators.

Pesticides can induce toxic effects on research animals and interfere with experimental procedures (Gunasekara et al. 2008). They should be used in animal areas only when necessary and investigators whose animals may be exposed to them should be consulted beforehand. Use of pesticides should be recorded and coordinated with the animal care management staff and be in compliance with federal, state, or local regulations. Whenever possible, nontoxic means of pest control, such as insect growth regulators (Donahue et al. 1989; Garg and Donahue 1989; King and Bennett 1989; Verma 2002) and nontoxic substances (e.g., amorphous silica gel), should be used. If traps are used, methods should be humane; traps that catch pests alive require frequent observation and humane euthanasia after capture (Mason and Littin 2003; Meerburg et al. 2008).


Emergency, Weekend, and Holiday Care Animals should be cared for by qualified personnel every day, including weekends and holidays, both to safeguard their well-being and to satisfy research requirements. Emergency veterinary care must be available after work hours, on weekends, and on holidays.

In the event of an emergency, institutional security personnel and fire or police officials should be able to reach people responsible for the animals. Notification can be enhanced by prominently posting emergency procedures, names, or telephone numbers in animal facilities or by placing them in the security department or telephone center. Emergency procedures for handling special facilities or operations should be prominently posted and personnel trained in emergency procedures for these areas. A disaster plan



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