MUST, SHOULD, AND MAY

Must indicates actions that the Committee for the Update of the Guide considers imperative and mandatory duty or requirement for providing humane animal care and use. Should indicates a strong recommendation for achieving a goal; however, the Committee recognizes that individual circumstances might justify an alternative strategy. May indicates a suggestion to be considered.

The Guide is written in general terms so that its recommendations can be applied in diverse institutions and settings that produce or use animals for research, teaching, and testing. This approach requires that users, IACUCs, veterinarians, and producers apply professional judgment in making specific decisions regarding animal care and use. Because the Guide is written in general terms, IACUCs have a key role in interpretation, implementation, oversight, and evaluation of institutional animal care and use programs.

REFERENCES

AWA [Animal Welfare Act]. 1990. Animal Welfare Act. PL (Public Law) 89-544. Available at www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislat/awa.htm; accessed January 14, 2010.

Gonder JC, Smeby RR, Wolfle TL. 2001. Performance Standards and Animal Welfare: Definition, Application and Assessment, Parts I and II. Greenbelt MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare.

IRAC [Interagency Research Animal Committee]. 1985. U.S. Government Principles for Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training. Federal Register, May 20, 1985. Washington: Office of Science and Technology Policy. Available at http://oacu.od.nih.gov/regs/USGovtPrncpl.htm; accessed May 10, 2010.

Klein HJ, Bayne KA. 2007. Establishing a culture of care, conscience, and responsibility: Addressing the improvement of scientific discovery and animal welfare through science-based performance standards. ILAR J 48:3-11.

McCarthy CR. 1999. Bioethics of laboratory animal research. ILAR J 40:1-37.

NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration]. 2008. NASA Principles for the Ethical Care and Use of Animals. NPR 8910.1B-Appendix A. May 28. Available at http://nodis3.gsfc.nasa.gov/displayDir.cfm?t=NPDandc=8910ands=1B;accessed May 10,2010.

NCB [Nuffield Council on Bioethics]. 2005. The Ethics of Research Using Animals. London: NCB.

NIH [National Institutes of Health]. 2007. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services and the Office of Research Oversight and the Office of Research and Development, Veterans Health Administration, US Department of Veterans Affairs Concerning Laboratory Animal Welfare. November 2007. Bethesda: Office of Extramural Research, NIH. Available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/mou_olaw_va_2007_11.htm.

NIH. 2006. Memorandum of Understanding Among the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service USDA and the Food and Drug Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Institutes of Health Concerning Laboratory Animal Welfare. March 1, 2006. Bethesda: Office of Extramural Research, NIH. Available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/finalmou.htm.



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