Waste Disposal Wastewater treatment and disposal may be necessary in some facilities depending on water volume, quality, and chemical constituents. Local regulations may limit or control the release of wastewater.

Pest Control Terrestrial animal pest control principles apply to aquatic systems but, due to transcutaneous absorption, aquatic and semiaquatic species may be more sensitive to commonly used pest control agents than terrestrial animals. Before use, an appropriate review of chemicals and methods of application is necessary.

Emergency, Weekend, and Holiday Care As with terrestrial species, aquatic animals should receive daily care from qualified personnel who have a sufficient understanding of the housing system to identify malfunctions and, if they are unable to address a system failure of such magnitude that it requires resolution before the next workday, access to staff who can respond to the problem. Automated monitoring systems are available and may be appropriate depending on system size and complexity. Appropriate emergency response plans should be developed to address major system failures.

Population Management

Identification Identification principles are similar to those for terrestrial animals. Identification criteria are based on the species and housing system. Identification methods available for use in aquatic species include fin clip-ping, genetic testing (Matthews et al. 2002; Nickum et al. 2004), identification tags, subcutaneous injections of elastomeric or other materials (Nickum et al. 2004), individual transponder tags (in animals of sufficient size), and, as applicable, external features such as individual color patterns. Because it can be difficult to individually identify some small aquatic animals throughout their life, group identification may be more appropriate in some situations (Koerber and Kalishman 2009; Matthews et al. 2002).

Aquatic Animal Recordkeeping Adequate recordkeeping is necessary in aquatic system management. In general, the same standards used for terrestrial animals apply to aquatic and semiaquatic species, although modifications may be necessary to account for species or system variations (Koerber and Kalishman 2009).

Although many aquatic animals are maintained using group (vs. individual) identification, detailed animal records are still necessary. Animal information that may routinely be captured, particularly in biomedical research with fish, includes species; genetic information (parental stock identification, genetic composition); stock source; stock numbers in system; tank identification; system life support information; breeding; deaths;

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