capabilities of other Arctic nations, especially Russia with its extensive claims of Arctic sovereignty, as well as with non-Arctic nations, such as China.
RECOMMENDATION 5.2: Given that climate change may drive the U.S. naval forces to conduct antisubmarine warfare (ASW) operations in the Arctic, the Department of the Navy should increase its submarine Arctic presence for training purposes, extend its supporting ASW oceanographic data infrastructure to the Arctic Ocean, and begin to conduct multiplatform ASW training exercises in the Arctic. Specifically, this should include:
Increased research for Arctic passive and active sonars;
Long-range planning to install facilities that support Arctic ASW, such as refurbishing and expanding the fixed array systems;
Planning for aircraft support from the new P8;
Development of high-latitude communications systems for relaying tactical and environmental data;
Identifying ports for emergencies; and
Incorporation of a more robust under-ice capability on Virginia-class submarines.