cated climate system models. Dr. Bitz is a member of the advisory board for the Community Climate System Model sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy and of the steering committee for the NOAA Climate and Global Change postdoctoral program. She currently serves on the NRC Climate Research Committee and was a member of the U.S. International Polar Year Planning Committee.


Ronald Filadelfo is research team leader for the Environment and Energy Research Team at the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA), the Navy’s federally funded research and development center. His early work at CNA was in the field of antisubmarine warfare, and since the mid-1990s, he has worked on Navy environmental issues. His current research focus is on the effects of military sonars on marine mammals. For the last 2 years, Dr. Filadelfo has examined the issue of climate change and its relationships to national security. Most recently, he served on the CNA study team for the 2007 report entitled National Security and the Threat of Climate Change.


Jeffrey M. Garrett retired from the U.S. Coast Guard with the rank of Rear Admiral after 31 years on active duty. He is currently an independent consultant. Admiral Garrett served in a variety of command, operational, and staff assignments. His shipboard assignments included polar icebreaking deployments throughout the eastern and western Arctic and in the Antarctic in the polar icebreakers Burton Island (WAGB 283) and Polar Star (WAGB 10), and as commanding officer (CO) of Polar Sea (WAGB 11). As the commissioning CO of Healy (WAGB 20), he brought the nation’s newest polar icebreaker through delivery, shakedown operations, and ice trials in the eastern Arctic, and through the Northwest Passage to homeport in Seattle. Other Coast Guard service included duties at the Vessel Traffic Service in Valdez, Alaska, command of a Great Lakes icebreaker, and multiple programming and budgeting staff assignments at Coast Guard headquarters. As a flag officer, Admiral Garrett served as the Coast Guard’s director of resources, responsible for the service’s budget, long-range planning, and policy development, and as Commander of the 13th District in the Pacific Northwest. Since retirement in 2005, Admiral Garrett has served as a member of the NRC Committee on Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs (2006), as chairman of the Coast Guard’s Polar Operations and Policy study (2008), and as a consultant for a variety of maritime- and polar-related projects.


Harry W. Jenkins, Jr., retired from the U.S. Marine Corps with the rank of Major General and is currently an independent consultant. His background includes naval operations, mine countermeasures, and Marine Corps intelligence operations—in particular, its mission use of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, or C4ISR, systems. He



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