Dr. Shepherd received a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers at the White House. He was made a fellow of the American Meterological Society in 2009. Dr. Shepherd is currently a member of the NASA Precipitation Measurement Missions Science team and the NOAA Climate Working Group. He is editor of the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology and the climatogy section of Geography Compass.


Charles F. Wald retired from the U.S. Air Force as a four-star general with more than 35 years of service and more than 3,600 flying hours and 430 combat hours as a command pilot. General Wald is director and senior advisor to aerospace and defense industry for Deloitte Services, LLP. In this role, he is responsible for providing senior leadership in strategy and relationships with defense contractors and Department of Defense program executives. He is a subject matter specialist in weapons procurement and deployment, counterterrorism, national energy, and international security policy. General Wald has received major military awards and decorations, including the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, and the Distinguished Flying Cross. A graduate of North Dakota State University, he received a master’s degree in international relations from Troy University. He also completed coursework at Harvard University and the National War College and has been awarded an Honorary Doctor of Law degree from North Dakota State University. General Wald served as a member of the military advisory board for the 2008 Center for Naval Analyses report entitled National Security and the Threat of Climate Change.


Dr. David Whelan (NAE) is vice president, deputy general manager, Advanced Systems and chief scientist, Integrated Defense Systems, at the Boeing Company. His areas of expertise include defense research, development, and enabling technologies such as autonomous vehicles and space-based moving target indicator radar systems. Prior to joining Boeing, he served as director of the Tactical Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. His high-technology development experience includes roles as a research physicist for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and as a lead engineer at Northrop Grumman. Dr. Whelan has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Defense Science Board, the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, and the NRC Committee on Research, Development and Acquisition Options for U.S. Special Operations Command. Dr. Whelan is vice chair of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. He also serves as a member of the NRC’s America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change.


Dr. Carl Wunsch (NAS) is the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physical Oceanography at MIT. His research interests include ocean observing technologies and the general circulation of the world’s oceans and its implications for climate change. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees,



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