in leading advancements in climate science and understanding its impacts within the broader context of the DOD’s responsibility to assess the effects of climate change on all DOD missions, capabilities, and facilities. The Navy brings significant historical experience and unique assets to this arena, such as its specialized oceanographic fleet and its submarine under-ice data collection capabilities. The committee views these naval assets and related advances in fundamental knowledge as supportive of the national security interests of the United States. These advances will also aid in reducing the uncertainties in future climate change and response projections and the necessary national response.

FINDING 1.2: Many climate change issues with potentially high impact for U.S. naval forces are known through direct scientific evidence. However, many climate change uncertainties remain.

RECOMMENDATION 1.2: Naval leadership should continue leading the understanding of the impact of climate change for the DOD and contribute to better technical understanding. Naval leadership should adopt a risk analysis approach for dealing with the climate change uncertainties by developing response scenarios for accepted projections and for excursions away from the projections.

Throughout this report, the committee recommends actions that would address these more extreme excursions as a hedge against the possible and to help address a risk management approach.


This report is organized to address the key naval issues requested in the study’s terms of reference and presents findings and recommendations in the six areas for naval leadership action outlined in the report Summary. Following the Chapter 1 introductory comments, Chapter 2 addresses national security and climate-change-related operational issues for U.S. naval forces.40 Where appropriate, Arctic operational issues for naval forces are articulated separately from global climate-change-related naval operational issues. Chapter 3 addresses physical infrastructure issues for U.S. naval forces, due primarily to projected climate-induced sea-level rise and storm surge and their potential impact on naval coastal installations around the globe. Allied forces issues are discussed and explored in Chapter 4, not only providing findings and recommendations for climate change issues associated with traditional U.S. allies but also addressing the need for broader naval military and international partnerships in planning for projected climate-induced HA/DR events. Chapter 5 discusses climate-change-


Throughout the report, unless otherwise designated, the term “naval forces” includes the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Marine Corps, and the U.S. Coast Guard.

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