3
Ad Hoc Study Committees: Activities and Membership

When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board (SSB) conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Thirteen ad hoc committees were organized, met, or released studies during 2009. (Activities and membership are summarized below.)

In addition, one ad hoc committee produced a report in 2008 and was formally disbanded in 2009—the Committee on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System, formed under the auspices of SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). The committee’s report, Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System, was summarized in the 2008 annual report.

ASSESSMENT OF IMPEDIMENTS TO INTERAGENCY COOPERATION ON SPACE AND EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS

The ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions was formed to assess impediments, including cost growth, to the successful conduct of interagency cooperation on Earth science and space science missions; to identify lessons learned and best practices from past interagency Earth science and space science missions; and to recommend steps to help facilitate successful interagency collaborations on Earth science and space science missions.

The committee held its first meeting July 30-31 in Washington, D.C. The committee examined experiences in a number of recent multiagency programs, including National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System, Landsat, GOES-R, GLAST/Fermi, and the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Speakers at the meeting included Michael Freilich, Earth Science Division director, NASA Headquarters (HQ) (via videoconference); A. Thomas Young, executive vice president of Lockheed Martin Corp. (retired); Tom Karl and Jeff Privette, director and staff scientist, respectively, at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center; Robert Winokur, technical director, oceanographer of the Navy; Anne Kinney, director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); Paul Hertz, chief scientist, Science Mission Directorate, NASA HQ; Robin Staffin, director for basic research, Office of the Secretary of Defense; Kathy Turner, Office of High Energy Physics, Department of Energy; Persis Drell, director, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (via teleconference); Pam Whitney, Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee, House of Representatives Science and Technology Committee; Amy Kaminski, Office of Management and Budget; Damon Wells, Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP); Phil DeCola, OSTP; Darrel Williams and Jim Irons, NASA GSFC; Paul Menzel, University of Wisconsin (via videoconference); Colleen Hartman, George Washington University; Dana Johnson, Northrop Grumman; and Ronald Sega, Colorado State University.



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3 Ad Hoc Study Committees: Activities and Membership When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board (SSB) conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is estab- lished for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Thirteen ad hoc committees were organized, met, or released studies during 2009. (Activities and member- ship are summarized below.) In addition, one ad hoc committee produced a report in 2008 and was formally disbanded in 2009—the Com- mittee on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System, formed under the auspices of SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). The committee’s report, Launching Science: Science Oppor- tunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System, was summarized in the 2008 annual report. assessMeNT OF iMPeDiMeNTs TO iNTeraGeNCY COOPeraTiON ON sPaCe aND earTh sCieNCe MissiONs The ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Sci- ence Missions was formed to assess impediments, including cost growth, to the successful conduct of interagency cooperation on Earth science and space science missions; to identify lessons learned and best practices from past interagency Earth science and space science missions; and to recommend steps to help facilitate successful inter- agency collaborations on Earth science and space science missions. The committee held its first meeting July 30-31 in Washington, D.C. The committee examined experiences in a number of recent multiagency programs, including National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Sys- tem, Landsat, GOES-R, GLAST/Fermi, and the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Speakers at the meeting included Michael Freilich, Earth Science Division director, NASA Headquarters (HQ) (via videoconference); A. Thomas Young, executive vice president of Lockheed Martin Corp. (retired); Tom Karl and Jeff Privette, director and staff scientist, respectively, at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center; Robert Winokur, tech- nical director, oceanographer of the Navy; Anne Kinney, director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); Paul Hertz, chief scientist, Science Mission Directorate, NASA HQ; Robin Staffin, direc- tor for basic research, Office of the Secretary of Defense; Kathy Turner, Office of High Energy Physics, Department of Energy; Persis Drell, director, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (via teleconference); Pam Whitney, Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee, House of Representatives Science and Technology Committee; Amy Kaminski, Office of Management and Budget; Damon Wells, Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP); Phil DeCola, OSTP; Darrel Williams and Jim Irons, NASA GSFC; Paul Menzel, University of Wisconsin (via videoconference); Colleen Hartman, George Washington University; Dana Johnson, Northrop Grumman; and Ronald Sega, Colorado State University. 

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees The committee’s second meeting was held September 30-October 1 in Washington, D.C. Speakers at the meet- ing included Richard Obermann, staff director, Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee, House of Representatives Science and Technology Committee; Michael Freilich, Earth Science Division director, NASA HQ; Mary Kicza, NOAA assistant administrator for satellite and information services; and Geoffrey Pendleton, Dynetics Corporation. During closed session discussions, the committee finalized its report outline and discussed plans for completion of a short report in the Spring of 2010. No further meetings of the full committee were held in 2009; however, a subset of the committee participated in a November 2 meeting that was held in conjunction with the November 3-4 meeting of the Space Studies Board in Irvine, California; the committee also convened via frequent teleconferences. Membership D. James Baker, The William J. Clinton Foundation (co-chair) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado at Boulder (co-chair) David A. Bearden, The Aerospace Corporation Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Stacey Boland, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Carlos E. Del Castillo, Johns Hopkins University Antonio L. Elias, Orbital Sciences Corporation Margaret Finarelli, George Mason University Todd R. La Porte, University of California, Berkeley Margaret S. Leinen, Climate Response Fund Scott N. Pace, George Washington University Mark R. Schoeberl,* NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Graeme L. Stephens, Colorado State University Annalisa L. Weigel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael S. Witherell, University of California, Santa Barbara A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB __________________ *Resigned from committee August 28, 2009. assessMeNT OF Nasa LaBOraTOrY CaPaBiLiTies Congress directed NASA to arrange for an independent assessment of NASA laboratory capabilities; as a result, the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Laboratory Assessments Board, in collaboration with the SSB, formed the ad hoc Committee on Assessment of NASA Laboratory Capabilities to carry out a review of NASA’s laboratories to determine whether they are equipped and maintained at a level adequate to support NASA’s fundamental science and engineering research activities. The committee held its first meeting on September 8-9 in Washington, D.C., at which personnel from NASA Headquarters and seven NASA centers described their laboratories and associated research activities. In closed sessions, the committee laid out the guidelines for site visits to NASA centers to view firsthand the major laboratories and facilities involved in fundamental research. The committee’s first site visit was to NASA GSFC in Greenbelt, Maryland, on September 9-10. Committee subgroups also visited Glenn Research Center on October 15-16; Langley Research Center on October 21-22; Ames Research Center (aeronautics activities only); and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on November 9-10. At the second full committee meeting at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on November 11-12, agreement was reached on the overall report philosophy, and format and writing assignments were made. The committee determined that additional site visits were needed, and committee subgroups visited Ames Research Center’s space activities on December 2-3 and the Marshall Space Flight Center

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 on December 10. The third and final committee meeting will be held on January 19-20, 2010, at the National Acad- emies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. Membership John T. Best, Arnold Engineering Development Center (co-chair) Joseph B. Reagan, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (retired) (co-chair) William F. Ballhaus, Jr., The Aerospace Corporation (retired) Peter M. Banks, Astrolabe Venture Partners Ramon L. Chase, ANSER (Analytic Services, Inc.) Ravi B. Deo, Northrop Grumman Corporation (retired) Neil A. Duffie, University of Wisconsin-Madison Michael G. Dunn, Ohio State University Blair B. Gloss, NASA (retired) Marvine P. Hamner, George Washington University Wesley L. Harris, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Basil Hassan, Sandia National Laboratories Joan Hoopes, Orbital Technologies Corporation William E. McClintock, University of Colorado at Boulder Edward D. McCullough, Boeing Phantom Works Todd J. Mosher, Sierra Nevada Corporation Eli Reshotko, Case Western Reserve University John C. Sommerer,* Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory James M. Tien, University of Miami Candace E. Wark, Illinois Institute of Technology John F. Wendt, Senior Program Officer, ASEB (study director) James P. McGee, Director, LAB Arul Mozhi, Senior Program Officer, LAB Liza Hamilton, Administrative Coordinator, LAB Eva Labre, Program Associate, LAB __________________ *Resigned from committee January 18, 2010. asTrONOMY aND asTrOPhYsiCs DeCaDaL sUrVeY COMMiTTee The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), in cooperation with SSB, initiated the next decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics, Astro2010, to survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important scientific and technical activities of the decade 2010-2020. The survey is taking place over eighteen months and comprises two overlapping phases. The first phase was mostly concerned with establishing a science program, fact-finding, and establishing a procedure for the second phase. The second phase is concerned with creating a prioritized, balanced, and executable series of research activities—that is, ground- and space-based research programs, projects, telescopes, and missions—that will define the forefront of astronomy and astrophysics for the decade 2011-2020. The Astro2010 Survey Committee is assisted in its work by a series of nine panels addressing various topics— five Science Frontiers panels and four Program Prioritization panels. The Survey Committee will be responsible for synthesizing the panel inputs, determining priorities and recommendations, and preparing the final report which will have two volumes (a main committee report and a volume that will contain reports from the panels). The Survey Committee and panels conducted over 30 meetings throughout 2009. Over 700 pieces of input from the community was received in the form of town hall meeting reports, white papers, position papers, and responses to requests for information. Seventeen Astro2010 town hall meetings were held across the U.S., including sessions on January 6 at the AAS meeting in Long Beach, California, and on May 4-5 at the American Physical Society meeting in Denver, Colorado.

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees During the last quarter of 2009, five of the nine panel reports entered the NRC’s peer-review process. The remaining panel reports are scheduled to enter review in early 2010 and the Survey Committee plans to hold their last two (closed) meetings in January and February 2010. The Survey Committee’s report is scheduled to enter NRC review in the spring. The prepublication versions of the Survey Committee report and the panel reports are expected to be released in the summer of 2010. Further information and updates are available at http://www. nationalacademies.org/astro2010. Survey Committee Membership Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University (chair) Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology (executive officer) Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University (co-vice chair) John P. Huchra, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (co-vice chair) Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona (co-vice chair) Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Lars Bildsten, University of California, Santa Barbara John E. Carlstrom, University of Chicago Debra M. Elmegreen, Vassar College Joshua Frieman, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Timothy M. Heckman, Johns Hopkins University Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr., University of Cambridge Jonathan I. Lunine, University of Rome Tor Vergata Claire E. Max, University of California, Santa Cruz Dan McCammon, University of Wisconsin-Madison Steven M. Ritz, SCIPP, University of California, Santa Cruz Juri Toomre, University of Colorado, Boulder Scott D. Tremaine, Institute for Advanced Study Michael S. Turner, University of Chicago Neil de Grasse Tyson, American Museum of Natural History Paul Adrian Vanden Bout, National Radio Astronomy Observatory A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Staff Donald C. Shapero, Director, BPA Michael H. Moloney, Associate Director BPA (study director) Richard Rowberg, Associate Director, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences (DEPS) Brant L. Sponberg, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer, SSB Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, BPA Brian D. Dewhurst, Program Officer, ASEB (until August 2009) James Lancaster, Program Officer, BPA (from April 2009) David Lang, Program Officer, BPA Teri Thorowgood, Administrative Coordinator, BPA (from December 2009) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB Caryn Knutsen, Research Associate, BPA LaVita Coates-Fogle, Senior Program Assistant, BPA (until October 2009) Beth Dolan, Financial Associate, DEPS Panel on Cosmology and Fundamental Physics Membership David Spergel, Princeton University (chair) David Weinberg, Ohio State University (vice chair)

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 Rachel Bean, Cornell University Neil Cornish, Montana State University Jonathan Feng, University of California at Irvine Alex Filippenko, University of California, Berkeley Wick Haxton, NAS, University of Washington Marc Kamionkowski, California Institute of Technology Lisa Randall, Harvard University Eun-Suk Seo, University of Maryland David Tytler, University of California, San Diego Clifford Will, Washington University Panel on Planetary Systems and Star Formation Membership Lee Hartmann, University of Michigan (chair) Hector Arce, Yale University Claire Chandler, National Radio Astronomy Observatory David Charbonneau, Harvard University Eugene Chiang, University of California, Berkeley Suzan Edwards, Smith College Eric Herbst, Ohio State University David C. Jewitt, University of Hawaii James P. Lloyd, Cornell University Eve C. Ostriker, University of Maryland David Stevenson, California Institute of Technology Jonathan Tan, University of Florida Daniel M. Watson, University of Rochester Panel on Stars and Stellar Evolution Membership Roger Chevalier, University of Virginia (chair) Robert Kirshner, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (vice chair) Deepto Chakrabarty, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Suzanne Hawley, University of Washington Jeffrey Kuhn, University of Hawaii Stanley Owocki, University of Delaware Marc Pinsonneault, Ohio State University Eliot Quataert, University of California, Berkeley Scott Ransom, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Hendrik Schatz, Michigan State University Lee Anne Willson, Iowa State University Stanford Woosley, University of California, Santa Cruz Panel on Galactic Neighborhood Membership Michael Shull, University of Colorado (chair) Leo Blitz, University of California, Berkeley Julianne Dalcanton, University of Washington Bruce Draine, Princeton University Robert Fesen, Dartmouth University Karl Gebhardt, University of Texas Juna Kollmeier, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington Crystal Martin, University of California, Santa Barbara Jason Tumlinson, Space Telescope Science Institute

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees Daniel Wang, University of Massachusetts Dennis Zaritsky, University of Arizona Stephen Zepf, Michigan State University Panel on Galaxies Across Cosmic Time Membership Meg Urry, Yale University (chair) Mitchell Begelman, University of Colorado (vice chair) Andrew Baker, Rutgers University Neta Bahcall, Princeton University Romeel Davé, University of Arizona Tiziana di Matteo, Carnegie Mellon University Henric Krawczynski, Washington University Joseph Mohr, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Richard Mushotzky, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Chris Reynolds, University of Maryland Alice Shapley, University of California, Los Angeles Tommaso Treu, University of California, Santa Barbara Jaqueline van Gorkom, Columbia University Eric Wilcots, University of Wisconsin Panel on Radio, Millimeter and Submillimeter from the Ground Membership Neal Evans, University of Texas (chair) James M. Moran, Harvard University (vice chair) Crystal Brogan, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Aaron Evans, University of Virginia Sarah Gibson, National Center for Atmospheric Research High Altitude Observatory Jason Glenn, University of Colorado Nicholas Gnedin, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Cornelia C. Lang, University of Iowa Miguel Morales, University of Washington Maura McLaughlin, West Virginia University Lyman A. Page, Jr., Princeton University Jean Turner, University of California, Los Angeles David J. Wilner, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground Membership Patrick S. Osmer, Ohio State University (chair) Michael Skrutskie, University of Virginia (vice chair) Charles Bailyn, Yale University Betsy Barton, University of California, Irvine Todd Boroson, National Optical Astronomy Observatory Daniel Eisenstein, University of Arizona Andrea Ghez, University of California, Los Angeles J. Todd Hoeksema, Stanford University Robert Kirshner, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Bruce Macintosh, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Piero Madau, University of California, Santa Cruz John Monnier, University of Michigan Iain Neill Reid, Space Telescope Science Institute Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota

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8 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 Panel on Electromagnetic Observations from Space Membership Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (chair) Michael Bay, Bay Engineering Innovations Alan Boss, Carnegie Institution of Washington Mark Devlin, University of Pennsylvania Megan Donahue, Michigan State University Brenna Flaugher, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Tom Greene, NASA Ames Research Center Puragra (Raja) GuhaThakurta, University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory Michael Hauser, Space Telescope Science Institute Harold McAlister, Georgia State University Peter Michelson, Stanford University Ben Oppenheimer, American Museum of Natural History Frits Paerels, Columbia University Adam Reiss, Johns Hopkins University George Rieke, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona Paul Schechter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Todd Tripp, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Panel on Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation Membership Jacqueline Hewitt, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chair) Eric Adelberger, University of Washington Andreas Albrecht, University of California, Davis Elena Aprile, Columbia University Jonathan Arons, University of California, Berkeley Barry Barish, California Institute of Technology Joan Centrella, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Douglas Finkbeiner, Harvard University Kathy Flanagan, Space Telescope Science Institute Gabriela Gonzalez, Louisiana State University Jim Hartle, University of California, Santa Barbara Steve Kahn, Stanford University Jeremy Kasdin, Princeton University Teresa Montaruli, University of Wisconsin, Madison Angela Olinto, University of Chicago Rene Ong, University of California, Los Angeles Helen Quinn, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center COsT GrOWTh iN Nasa earTh aND sPaCe sCieNCe MissiONs The ad hoc Committee on Cost Growth in NASA Earth and Space Science Missions was formed to review exist- ing cost growth studies related to NASA space and Earth science missions and identify their key causes of cost growth and strategies for mitigating cost growth; assess whether those key causes remain applicable in the current environ- ment and identifying any new major causes; and evaluate the effectiveness of current and planned NASA cost growth mitigation strategies and, as appropriate, recommend new strategies to ensure frequent mission opportunities. The committee’s first meeting, on September 1-2 in Washington, D.C., included discussions with NASA staff on past assessments of cost and schedule growth of NASA space and Earth science missions and committee delibera- tions on the current applicability of historic causes of cost and schedule growth and past strategies to deal with this problem. The second meeting, on October 14-16 at JPL in Pasadena, California, included discussions with personnel from NASA Headquarters, JPL, GSFC, the U.S. Air Force, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Labora- tory, and industry regarding the causes of cost and schedule growth and possible approaches for improvement.

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9 Ad Hoc Study Committees At its third meeting on December 3-4 in Washington, D.C., the committee focused on reviewing the report out- line, developing consensus on findings and recommendations, and assigning draft sections of the report. Based on the progress at this meeting, the committee elected to schedule a fourth and final writing meeting for January 11-12, 2010, in Boulder, Colorado. The committee plans to have its draft report submitted for NRC review by late spring 2010; with delivery to NASA of a prepublication version expected in late May 2010. The final printed report is expected to be completed and released in July 2010. Membership Ronald M. Sega, Colorado State University Research Foundation (chair) Vassilis Angelopoulos, University of California, Berkeley Robert E. Bitten,* The Aerospace Corporation Allan V. Burman, Jefferson Consulting Group, LLC Olivier L. de Weck, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert E. Deemer, Regis University Larry W. Esposito, University of Colorado, Boulder Joseph Fuller, Jr., Futron Corporation Joseph W. Hamaker, Science Applications International Corporation Victoria E. Hamilton, Southwest Research Institute John M. Klineberg, Loral Space and Communications, Ltd. (retired) Robert P. Lin,* University of California, Berkeley Bruce D. Marcus, TRW Inc. (retired) Emery I. Reeves, Independent Consultant William F. Townsend, Independent Consultant Alan C. Angleman, Senior Program Officer, ASEB (study director) Andrea M. Rebholz, Program Associate, ASEB __________________ *Resigned from committee in September 2009. DeCaDaL sUrVeY ON BiOLOGiCaL aND PhYsiCaL sCieNCes iN sPaCe The Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space was formed under the auspieces of the SSB and the ASEB in response to a congressional request for a study to establish priorities and provide recommendations for life and physical sciences space research, including research that will enable exploration missions in micrograv- ity and partial gravity for the 2010-2020 decade. The decadal survey will define research areas, recommend a research portfolio and a timeline for conducting that research, identify facility and platform requirements as appropriate, provide rationales for suggested program elements, define dependencies between research objectives, identify terrestrial benefits, and specify whether the research product directly enables exploration or produces fundamental new knowledge. These areas will be catego- rized as either those that are required to enable exploration missions or those that are enabled or facilitated because of exploration missions. The steering committee held its first meeting on May 6-8 at the National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D.C. The first day and a half was devoted to discussions of the study goals with NASA and congres- sional staffers and obtaining necessary background briefings on topics such as NASA exploration capability needs and the current research program structure and content. During the closed portion of the meeting, the committee concentrated its efforts on determining how it would structure its seven focus panels and began the process of iden- tifying appropriate expertise and membership for each panel. Work on panel development continued following the meeting, through both frequent internal discussions and consultations with members of the community. The steering committee held its second meeting on June 29-July 1 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. Additional briefings related to the various past research solicitation and management approaches used by NASA were obtained, however most of the meeting was devoted to detailed planning for the work of the committee and its panels. Following the meeting, the steering committee continued to work on the member-

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 appointment process for the seven study panels, planning for several town halls, solicitation of white papers through numerous announcements sent to various lists and organizations relevant to the NASA biological and physical sci- ences program, and the organization of a joint first meeting for the panels. The joint meeting of the panels was held on August 19-21 at the National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D.C., and six of the seven panels participated. The panels attending the meeting were the Plant and Microbial Biology Panel, the Animal and Human Biology Panel, the Human Behavior and Mental Health Panel, the Applied Physical Sciences Panel, the Integrative and Translational Research for the Human System Panel, and the Translation to Space Exploration Systems Panel. Approximately 70 attendees were given an overview of the study by steering committee co-chair Betsy Cantwell and heard detailed background briefings on NASA’s explora- tion needs, research capabilities, and program status and history. Panels then met separately in closed sessions where they discussed the task and the various information resources that were, or would become, available during the study. Each panel developed preliminary strategies for addressing their task items, chapter outlines, and writing assignments. The seventh panel, the Fundamental Physical Sciences Panel, was unable to attend the joint meeting, but met on September 8-9 with an agenda and activities similar to those of the joint meeting. The steering committee met on October 14-16, in Washington, D.C., to hear presentations on the European and Japanese microgravity programs, as well as presentations on research opportunities that could potentially become available on commercial spacecraft. Most of the meeting was reserved for closed session discussions on the status of efforts to recruit community input, review of materials drafted by the panels, and report development and planning activities. A teleconference call was held with the seven panel chairs for this study during the meeting. Following the meeting, the steering committee continued to hold frequent joint teleconference calls with individual panels in order to provide input and guidance. After a broad canvassing of the relevant communities, the solicitation of white papers for this study was com- pleted in mid-October, with the receipt of about 150 papers from the community (many with multiple authors). The white papers covered a wide number of disciplines relevant to the study and were subsequently reviewed by each of the seven study panels and the steering committee. Four town halls were held in conjunction with scientific society or technical meetings during this period—meetings of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. At each of these meetings, steering committee members presented information on the study and led discussions aimed at soliciting input on important research and programmatic issues. Nine additional meetings of the various study panels were held prior to the end of 2009 in order to gather and assess inputs from a wide range of sources, including invited presentations, and to continue development of chapters and recommendations for the report. In addition to regular meetings, the panels have continued to hold teleconference calls in order to address report development issues. Regular meetings of the panels will be completed by the end of January 2010. Updates and detailed information on the study are provided on the public Web site at http://sites. nationalacademies.org/SSB/CurrentProjects/ssb_050845. Steering Committee Membership Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (co-chair) Wendy Kohrt, University of Colorado, Denver (co-chair) Lars Berglund, University of California, Davis Nicholas P. Bigelow, University of Rochester Leonard H. Caveny, Independent Consultant Vijay K. Dhir, University of California, Los Angeles Joel Dimsdale, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine Nikolaos A. Gatsonis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Simon Gilroy, University of Wisconsin-Madison Benjamin D. Levine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Kathryn V. Logan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Philippa Marrack, National Jewish Health Gabor A. Somorjai, University of California, Berkeley Charles M. Tipton, University of Arizona

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees Jose L. Torero, University of Edinburgh Robert Wegeng, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Gayle E. Woloschak, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Alan C. Angleman, Senior Program Officer,* ASEB Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer, SSB Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer,* BPA Maureen Mellody, Program Officer,* ASEB Regina North, Consultant Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Danielle Johnson,* Senior Program Assistant, Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies Laura Toth,* Senior Program Assistant, National Materials Advisory Board Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Eric Whittaker,* Senior Program Assistant, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board __________________ *Staff from other NRC boards who are assisting with the survey. Animal and Human Biology Panel Membership Kenneth M. Baldwin, University of California, Irvine (chair) Francois M. Abboud, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine Peter R. Cavanagh, University of Washington V. Reggie Edgerton, University of California, Los Angeles Donna Murasko, Drexel University John T. Potts, Jr., Massachusetts General Hospital April E. Ronca, Wake Forest University School of Medicine Charles M. Tipton, University of Arizona Charles H. Turner, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis John B. West, University of California, San Diego Applied Physical Sciences Panel Membership Peter W. Voorhees, Northwestern University (chair) Nikolaos A. Gatsonis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Richard T. Lahey, Jr., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Richard M. Lueptow, Northwestern University John J. Moore, Colorado School of Mines Elaine S. Oran, Naval Research Laboratory Amy L. Rechenmacher, University of Southern California James T’ien, Case Western Reserve University Mark M. Weislogel, Portland State University Fundamental Physics Panel Membership Robert V. Duncan, University of Missouri (chair) Nicholas P. Bigelow, University of Rochester Paul M. Chaikin, New York University Ronald G. Larson, University of Michigan W. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Boulder Ronald Walsworth, Harvard University

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 Human Behavior and Mental Health Panel Membership Thomas J. Balkin, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (chair) Joel E. Dimsdale, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine Nick Kanas, University of California, San Francisco Gloria Leon, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Lawrence A. Palinkas, University of California, San Diego Mriganka Sur, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Integrative and Translational Research for the Human System Panel Membership James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University (chair) Alan R. Hargens, University of California, San Diego Robert L. Helmreich, University of Texas, Austin (retired) Joanne R. Lupton, Texas A&M University, College Station Charles M. Oman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology David Robertson, Vanderbilt University Suzanne M. Schneider, University of New Mexico Gayle E. Woloschak, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Plant and Microbial Biology Panel Membership Terri L. Lomax, North Carolina State University (chair) Paul Blount, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Robert J. Ferl, University of Florida Simon Gilroy, University of Wisconsin, Madison E. Peter Greenberg, University of Washington School of Medicine Translation to Space Exploration Systems Panel Membership James P. Bagian, Veterans Health Administration (chair) Frederick R. Best, Texas A&M University, College Station Leonard H. Caveny, Independent Consultant Michael B. Duke, Colorado School of Mines (retired) John P. Kizito, North Carolina A&T State University David Y. Kusnierkiewicz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory E. Thomas Mahefkey, Jr., Heat Transfer Technology Consultants Dava J. Newman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Richard J. Roby, Combustion Science and Engineering, Inc. Guillermo Trotti, Trotti and Associates, Inc. Alan Wilhite, Georgia Institute of Technology heLiOPhYsiCs PerFOrMaNCe assessMeNT The ad hoc Heliophysics Performance Assessment Committee was formed to study the alignment of NASA’s Heliophysics Science Division with previous NRC advice—primarily the 2003 solar and space physics decadal survey, The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. In particular, the study focused on how well NASA’s current program addresses the strategies, goals, and priorities outlined in the decadal survey and other relevant NRC reports; NASA’s progress toward realizing these strategies, goals and priorities; and any actions that could be taken to optimize the science value of the program in the context of current and forecasted resources available. The study did not revisit or alter the scientific priorities or mission recommen- dations provided in the 2003 decadal survey, but provides guidance about implementing the recommended mission portfolio in preparation for the next decadal survey.

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees The committee’s report, A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Heliophysics Program, was delivered in pre- publication form on February 17 and printed in March. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership* Stephen A. Fuselier, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (co-chair) Roderick A. Heelis, University of Texas at Dallas (co-chair) Thomas Berger, Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory George Gloeckler,** University of Maryland, College Park Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Angeles Dana Warfield Longcope, Montana State University Gang Lu, High Altitude Observatory Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College Frank B. McDonald, University of Maryland, College Park Michael Mendillo, Boston University Robert E. Palmer, Independent Consultant Gary P. Zank, University of California, Riverside Brant L. Sponberg, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB __________________ *All terms ended in June 2009. **Resigned from committee in 2008. Nasa’s sUBOrBiTaL researCh CaPaBiLiTies The ad hoc Committee on NASA’s Suborbital Research Capabilities conducted a study of suborbital flight activities, including the use of sounding rockets, aircraft (including the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy), balloons, and suborbital reusable launch vehicles, as well as opportunities for research, training, and education as set out in the 2007 report Building a Better NASA Workforce: Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration. The committee met on May 20-21, 2009, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., and the meeting included briefings on the NASA suborbital program (NASA staff); NASA workforce issues (David Black, co-chair of the NRC committee that authored Building a Better NASA Workforce); and NASA mission-enabling issues (Lennard Fisk, chair of the Committee on the Role and Scope of Mission-Enabling Activities in NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions, and staff officer Joseph Alexander). At its second meeting, on August 19-20, 2009, at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder, Colorado, the committee heard presentations from several researchers who conduct research in the suborbital realm. At the committee’s third and final meeting on September 23-25, 2009, at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, the committee heard from several researchers on their suborbital work and received a second briefing from Lennard Fisk and Joseph Alexander. A prepublication version of the report, Revitalizing NASA’s Suborbital Program: Advancing Science, Driving Innovation, and Developing Workforce, was delivered to NASA on February 4, 2010. Briefings for congressional staff and NASA management were well received. The final, printed version of the report is expected to be released in mid-March 2010. Membership Steven R. Bohlen, Texas A&M University (chair) Kristin A. Blais, The Boeing Company Mark A. Brosmer, The Aerospace Corporation

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 Estelle Condon, NASA Ames Research Center (retired) Christine Foreman, Montana State University Adam P.-H. Huang, University of Arkansas Michael J. Kurylo III, Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley Franklin D. Martin, Martin Consulting Inc. R. Bruce Partridge, Haverford College Robert Pincus, RP Consultants W. Thomas Vestrand, Los Alamos National Laboratory Erik Wilkinson, Southwest Research Institute Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, BPA (study director) Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, SSB Linda M. Walker, Senior Project Assistant, SSB Near-earTh OBJeCT sUrVeYs aND haZarD MiTiGaTiON sTraTeGies An ad hoc Committee on Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies was formed under the auspices of the SSB and ASEB to undertake a two-phase study to review the two NASA reports, 00 Near- Earth Object Survey and Detection Study and Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives: Report to Congress, and other relevant literature and provide recommendations that will address two major issues: (1) determining the best approach to completing the near-Earth object (NEO) census required by Congress to identify potentially hazardous NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter by the year 2020 and (2) determining the optimal approach to developing a deflection strategy and ensuring that it includes a significant international effort. Both tasks will include an assessment of the costs of various alternatives, using independent cost estimating. Task 1 was addressed by the Survey/Detection Panel, and Task 2 was addressed by the Mitigation Panel. The steering group held its first meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center on December 9-11, 2008. In 2009, the steering group met on May 18-20 at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico; on August 10-11 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts; and on September 1-2 in Irvine, California. The Survey/Detection Panel met on January 28-30 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on April 20-22 at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in Tucson, Arizona, where it visited the Catalina Sky Survey Telescope. On April 29-30, the chair of the Survey/Detection Panel and a member of the Mitigation Panel visited the Pan-STARRS-1 telescope facility on Maui. The Survey/Detection Panel met on July 13-15 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, for report writing. The Mitigation Panel met on March 30-April 1 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C.; on June 23-25 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts; and on July 29-31 in Boulder, Colorado, for report writing. The committee’s interim report, Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Interim Report, was released in early August. The committee’s final report, Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Final Report, entered NRC review in fall 2009 and the prepublication version was released to the public on January 22, 2010. The interim report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. Steering Group Membership Irwin I. Shapiro, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (chair) Michael A’Hearn, University of Maryland, College Park (vice chair) Faith Vilas, MMT Observatory at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona (vice chair) Andrew F. Cheng, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Frank Culbertson, Jr., Orbital Sciences Corporation David C. Jewitt, University of California, Los Angeles Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute H. Jay Melosh, Purdue University Joseph H. Rothenberg, Universal Space Network

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, SSB (study director) Paul Jackson, Associate Program Officer, ASEB (study director) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB Abigail A. Sheffer, Associate Program Officer, SSB Victoria Swisher, Research Associate, SSB (through August) Andrea Rebholz, Program Associate, ASEB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Survey/Detection Panel Membership Faith Vilas, MMT Observatory at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona (chair) Paul Abell, Planetary Science Institute Robert F. Arentz, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation Lance A.M. Benner, Jet Propulsion Laboratory William F. Bottke, Southwest Research Institute William E. Burrows, Independent Aerospace Writer and Historian Andrew F. Cheng, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Robert D. Culp, University of Colorado, Boulder Yanga Fernandez, University of Central Florida Lynne Jones, University of Washington Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute Amy Mainzer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Gordon H. Pettengill, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (retired) John Rice, University of California, Berkeley Mitigation Panel Membership Michael A’Hearn, University of Maryland, College Park (chair) Michael J.S. Belton, National Optical Astronomy Observatories Mark Boslough, Sandia National Laboratories Clark R. Chapman, Southwest Research Institute Sigrid Close, Stanford University James A. Dator, University of Hawaii, Manoa David S.P. Dearborn, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Keith A. Holsapple, University of Washington David Y. Kusnierkiewicz, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Paulo Lozano, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Edward D. McCullough, Boeing (retired) H. Jay Melosh, Purdue University David J. Nash, Dave Nash & Associates, LLC Daniel J. Scheeres, University of Colorado, Boulder Sarah T. Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, Harvard University Kathryn C. Thornton, University of Virginia PLaNeTarY PrOTeCTiON reQUireMeNTs FOr Mars saMPLe-reTUrN MissiONs An ad hoc Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample-Return Missions was formed to review and update the 1997 NRC report Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations in the light of new findings about Mars and recent advances in the biological sciences. The committee completed all of its scheduled meetings in 2008 and completed an initial draft of its report in early December 2008. The committee spent the first 6 weeks of 2009 revising the draft report in response to com- ments provided by external reviewers. A prepublication version of the report was delivered to NASA in late April and the final report was printed in May 2009. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5.

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 Membership* Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University (chair) James F. Bell III, Cornell University Kathleen C. Benison, Central Michigan University William V. Boynton, University of Arizona Sherry L. Cady, Portland State University F. Grant Ferris, University of Toronto Duncan MacPherson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute Mark H. Thiemens, University of California, San Diego Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB __________________ *All terms expired on May 31, 2009. PLaNeTarY sCieNCes DeCaDaL sUrVeY The Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey was established to develop a comprehensive science and mission strategy for planetary science that updates and extends the Board’s 2003 solar system exploration decadal survey, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy. The new decadal survey will broadly canvas the planetary science community to determine the current state of knowledge and then identify the most important scientific questions expected to face the community during the interval 2013-2022. This 2-year study at the request of NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) began in 2009 with the appointment of the steering group and various outreach activities. Steering group chair Steven Squyres led a town hall session designed to inform the scientific community of the decadal survey’s goals and schedule at the Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference (Houston, Texas, March 25). Committee staff conducted similar outreach activities at a variety of venues including the meetings of the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (Houston, Texas, February 25), the Mars Exploration Pro- gram Analysis Group (Arlington, Virginia, March 3-4), the Outer Planets Assessment Group (Bethesda, Maryland, March 9-10), the Royal Astronomical Society (London, England, March 13), and the Curation and Analysis Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (Houston, Texas, March 28-29). During 2009, the survey steering group met twice, on July 6-8 in Washington, D.C., and on November 16-18 in Irvine, California. The panels have held the following meetings: Giant Planets Panel, August 24-26, Washington, D.C. and October 26-28, Irvine, California; Inner Planets Panel, August 26-28, Washington, D.C., and October 26-28, Irvine, California; Mars Panel, September 9-11, Tempe, Arizona, and November 4-6, Pasadena, California; Primi- tive Bodies Panel, September 9-11, Washington, D.C., and October 28-30, Irvine, California; and Satellites Panel, August 24-26, Washington, D.C., and September 21-23 in Irvine, California. Additional community outreach activities in support of the decadal survey were held at a variety of venues, includ- ing the meetings of the Outer Planets Assessment Group (Colombia, Maryland, July 14), the NASA Lunar Science Institute (Moffett Field, California, July 21-23), the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (Providence, Rhode Island, July 29-30), the European Planetary Science Congress (Potsdam, Germany, September 13-18), the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society (Fajardo, Puerto Rico, October 4-9), the American Geophysical Union (San Francisco, California, December 14-18), and the Lunar and Planetary Sciences Conference (The Woodlands, Texas, March 1-5, 2010). To assist its activities, the decadal survey has commissioned mission studies to be undertaken at the Applied Physics Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In a related activity, the decadal survey has engaged the services of the Aerospace Corporation to provide independent cost and technical evaluations of the highest-priority mission concepts resulting from these studies. Committee and panel meetings and community outreach activities continued in 2010. Updates from the steer- ing group chair to the planetary community can be found at http://sites.nationalacademies.org/SSB/SSB_054187. Presentations at these and other meetings, together with meeting summaries and archived webcasts, are available at

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees the decadal survey’s Web site at http://sites.nationalacademies.org/SSB/CurrentProjects/ssb_052412. The decadal survey is scheduled to be delivered to NASA and NSF by the end of March 2011. Steering Group Membership Steven W. Squyres, Cornell University (chair) Laurence A. Soderblom, U.S. Geological Survey (vice chair) Wendy M. Calvin, University of Nevada, Reno Dale Cruikshank, NASA Ames Research Center Pascale Ehrenfreund, George Washington University G. Scott Hubbard, Stanford University Wesley T. Huntress, Jr.,* Carnegie Institution of Washington Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California, Los Angeles B. Gentry Lee, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jane Luu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute Ralph L. McNutt, Jr., Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville George A. Paulikas,* The Aerospace Corporation (retired) Amy Simon-Miller, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center David J. Stevenson, California Institute of Technology A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, SSB Abigail Sheffer, Associate Program Officer, SSB Dionna Williams, Program Associate, SSB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Satellites Panel Membership John Spencer, Southwest Research Institute (chair) David J. Stevenson, California Institute of Technology (vice chair) Glenn Fountain, Johns Hopkins University Caitlin Ann Griffith, University of Arizona Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Angeles Christopher P. McKay, NASA Ames Research Center Francis Nimmo, University of California, Santa Cruz Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Gerald Schubert, University of California, Los Angeles Thomas R. Spilker, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Elizabeth P. Turtle, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Hunter Waite, University of Michigan Giant Planet Panel Membership Heidi B. Hammel, Space Science Institute (chair) Amy Simon-Miller, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (vice chair) Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University John R. Casani, Jet Propulsion Laboratory John Clarke, Boston University Bridgette Hesman,** National Radio Astronomy Observatory

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8 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 William B. Hubbard, University of Arizona Mark S. Marley, NASA Ames Research Center Philip D. Nicholson, Cornell University R. Wayne Richie, NASA Langley Research Center (retired) Kunio M. Sayanagi, California Institute of Technology Inner Planets Panel Membership Ellen R. Stofan, Proxemy Research (chair) Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute (vice chair) Barbara A. Cohen, NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center Martha S. Gilmore, Wesleyan University Lori Glaze, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center David H. Grinspoon, Denver Museum of Nature and Science Steven A. Hauck II, Case Western Reserve University Ayanna M. Howard, Georgia Institute of Technology Charles K. Shearer, University of New Mexico Douglas S. Stetson, Space Science and Exploration Consulting Group Edward M. Stolper, California Institute of Technology Allan H. Treiman, Lunar and Planetary Institute Mars Panel Membership Philip R. Christensen, Arizona State University (chair) Wendy M. Calvin, University of Nevada, Reno (vice chair) Raymond E. Arvidson, Washington University Robert D. Braun,*** Georgia Institute of Technology Glenn E. Cunningham, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (retired) David Des Marias, NASA Ames Research Center Linda T. Elkins-Tanton, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Francois Forget, University of Paris John P. Grotzinger, California Institute of Technology Penelope King, University of New Mexico Philippe Lognonne, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Paul R. Mahaffy, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Lisa M. Pratt, Indiana University Primitive Bodies Panel Membership Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University (chair) Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville (vice chair) Eric Asphaug, University of California, Santa Cruz Michael E. Brown, California Institute of Technology Donald E. Brownlee, University of Washington Marc Buie, Southwest Research Institute Timothy J. McCoy, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History Marc D. Rayman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edward Reynolds, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Mark Sephton, Imperial College London Jessica Sunshine, University of Maryland, College Park Faith Vilas, MMT Observatory

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9 Ad Hoc Study Committees __________________ *Dr. Huntress resigned in November 2009 to take up an appointment on the NASA Advisory Council; Dr. Paulikas was appointed in 2010 as his replacement. **Now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. ***Resigned from committee on February 8, 2010, to take an appointment at NASA Headquarters. raDiOisOTOPe POWer sYsTeMs The U.S. space program’s legendary successes include missions to circle the Earth, land on the Moon and Mars, orbit Jupiter and Saturn, and explore space beyond the limits of our solar system. Ensuring that space vehicles have adequate power presents special challenges in distant and extreme environments. Radioisotope power systems are currently the only available energy source for missions where solar power is not practical , and plutonium-238 (Pu-238 ), a nonweapons-grade material used solely by the space program, is the only practical isotope for fueling them. However, no Pu-238 has been produced in the United States since the late 1980s, and supplies are dwindling. The ad hoc Committee on Radioisotope Power Systems was formed under the auspices of the SSB and ASEB to assess the technical readiness and programmatic balance of NASA’s radioisotope power systems technology port- folio in terms of its ability to support NASA’s near- and long-term mission plans. In addition, the study examined related public and private infrastructure and the effectiveness of other federal agencies involved in relevant research and development. The study also reviewed strategies for reestablishing domestic production of Pu-238, which serves as the fuel for radioisotope power systems. The committee held its final committee meeting on January 12-13, 2009, at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center, in Irvine, California. The committee subsequently prepared a complete draft of its report, Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. A pre- publication version of the report was released in May 2009, followed by the printed report in July. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. Radioisotope Power Systems says that the fiscal year (FY) 2010 federal budget should provide funding to the Department of Energy to reestablish production of Pu-238 as soon as possible. Accordingly, the administration’s FY 2010 and 2011 budget requests for the Department of Energy have included funds for Pu-238 production. Membership* William W. Hoover, Independent Consultant (co-chair) Ralph L. McNutt, Jr., Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (co-chair) Douglas M. Allen, Schafer Corporation Samim Anghaie, University of Florida Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Warren W. Buck, University of Washington Beverly A. Cook, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Sergio B. Guarro, The Aerospace Corporation Roger D. Launius, Smithsonian Institution Frank B. McDonald, University of Maryland, College Park Alan R. Newhouse, Independent Consultant Joseph A. Sholtis, Jr., Sholtis Engineering and Safety Consulting Spencer R. Titley, University of Arizona Emanuel Tward, Northrop Grumman Space Technology Earl Wahlquist, U.S. Department of Energy (retired) Alan C. Angleman, Senior Program Officer, ASEB (study director) Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, SSB Sarah M. Capote, Program Associate, ASEB (through November 2008) Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, SSB (through January 2009) Andrea M. Rebholz, Senior Program Assistant, ASEB (from February 2009) __________________ *All terms expired on September 1, 2009.

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 raTiONaLe aND GOaLs FOr The U.s. CiViL sPaCe PrOGraM An ad hoc Committee on Rationale and Goals for the U.S. Civil Space Program was organized under the auspices of the SSB and the ASEB, with funding support from The National Academies Presidents’ Committee, to prepare a report to advise the nation on key goals and critical issues in 21st century U.S. civil space policy. Following information-gathering and discussion meetings in 2008, the committee met on January 13-15, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., for discussions with outside experts regarding public inter- ests and attitudes about space exploration, alternative exploration approaches, commercial and economic aspects of space activities, and the implications of two National Academies reports, Rising Above the Gathering Storm and Beyond “Fortress America,” for the committee’s task. Following the January meeting, the committee began to organize its study report. Work on the draft report continued, including a committee teleconference on February 13 and a March 2 meeting in Washington, D.C. The committee’s report, America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs, was submitted for external NRC review in April, released as a prepublication in July, and printed in September. The committee chair and both vice chairs testified at various congressional hearings where they summarized major conclusions from the report. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership* Lester L. Lyles, The Lyles Group (chair) Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) (co-vice chair) Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (co-vice chair) Jay Apt, Carnegie Mellon University James B. Armor, Jr., The Armor Group, LLC Wanda M. Austin, The Aerospace Corporation David Baltimore, California Institute of Technology Robert Bednarek, SES NEW SKIES Joseph A. Burns, Cornell University Pierre Chao, Renaissance Strategic Advisors Kenneth S. Flamm, University of Texas, Austin Joan Johnson-Freese, U.S. Naval War College Paul D. Nielsen, Carnegie Mellon University Michael S. Turner, University of Chicago Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University George T. Whitesides,** National Space Society Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Brian D. Dewhurst, Program Officer, ASEB (through August) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB Lewis Groswald, Policy Intern, SSB Victoria Swisher, Research Assistant, SSB (through August) __________________ *All terms expired on December 31, 2009. **Resigned from committee in 2008. rOLe aND sCOPe OF MissiON-eNaBLiNG aCTiViTies iN Nasa’s sPaCe aND earTh sCieNCe MissiONs The ad hoc Committee on the Role and Scope of Mission-Enabling Activities in NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions was formed to provide strategic advice on activities that traditionally encompass much of NASA’s research and analysis programs and that include support for theory, modeling, and data analysis; suborbital flights and complementary ground-based programs; and advanced mission and instrumentation concept studies. The committee met on January 21-23 at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, and on March 11-13 at the National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D.C., to gather

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees information from NASA program managers and other experts on aspects relevant to the study charge. At the March meeting the committee began to discuss approaches for responding to the study charge. At its final meeting on May 20-23 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., the committee discussed initial findings and recommendations and began work on the study report. The draft report was submitted for external NRC review in September and approved for release in November. A prepublication version of the report, An Enabling Foundation for NASA’s Earth and Space Science Missions, was delivered to NASA and congressional offices on November 30 and was released to the public on December 4. Final printed editions of the report were disseminated in February 2010. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair) Bruce H. Margon, University of California, Santa Cruz (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Yvonne C. Brill, Independent Consultant Donald E. Brownlee, University of Washington Richard Chapas, Battelle Eastern Science and Technology Center Martin H. Israel, Washington University Conilee G. Kirkpatrick, HRL Laboratories, LLC Jennifer A. Logan, Harvard University Robyn Millan, Dartmouth College Richard R. Paul, Boeing Phantom Works (retired) Guenter Riegler, NASA Ames Research Center (retired) Mark V. Sykes, Planetary Science Institute Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Victoria Swisher, Research Associate, SSB (through August) Linda M. Walker, Senior Project Assistant, SSB