2
Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership

During 2009, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA; jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy, BPA), the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL; jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP). The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15.

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES

The Board held its 158th meeting on May 13-15, 2009, in Washington D.C. The first day of the meeting was a joint session with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) devoted to the fiscal year (FY) 2010 budgets of the agencies. Guest speakers included Chris Scolese, NASA associate administrator (and acting administrator at the time of the meeting); Gale Allen, NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate; Lynn Cline, NASA Space Operations Mission Directorate; Robie Samanta Roy, Office of Science and Technology Policy; Paul Shawcross, Office of Management and Budget; and congressional staff, including Jeff Bingham, Ed Feddeman, Chan Lieu, and Dick Obermann. On the second day, the SSB continued the discussion about FY 2010 budgets with Charles Gay, NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD); Mary Kicza, NOAA-NESDIS; and Richard Behnke, National Science Foundation. The third day included a presentation and discussion about optical communications with John Rush, director of systems planning, NASA Space Communications Office.

The SSB executive committee (XCOM) met on August 4-5 at the J. Erik Jonsson Woods Hole Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for its annual strategic planning session. The XCOM meet with Jean Pierre Swings (European Space Science Committee Chair) and Jean-Claude Worms (European Science Foundation) for a discussion on emerging space powers. The committee also received status reports from Steve Squyres, chair of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and Betsy Cantwell, chair of the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space.

The Board met at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, November 3-4. The major focus of the meeting was the Augustine Commission Report with briefings from Commission members Ed Crawley (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Jeff Greason (XCOR Aerospace). In addition, David Bearden (Aerospace Corporation) reviewed the cost estimate methodology used by the Commis-



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2 Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership During 2009, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA; jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy, BPA), the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL; jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP). The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15. sPaCe sTUDies BOarD hiGhLiGhTs OF sPaCe sTUDies BOarD aCTiViTies The Board held its 158th meeting on May 13-15, 2009, in Washington D.C. The first day of the meeting was a joint session with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) devoted to the fiscal year (FY) 2010 bud- gets of the agencies. Guest speakers included Chris Scolese, NASA associate administrator (and acting administrator at the time of the meeting); Gale Allen, NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate; Lynn Cline, NASA Space Operations Mission Directorate; Robie Samanta Roy, Office of Science and Technology Policy; Paul Shawcross, Office of Management and Budget; and congressional staff, including Jeff Bingham, Ed Feddeman, Chan Lieu, and Dick Obermann. On the second day, the SSB continued the discussion about FY 2010 budgets with Charles Gay, NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD); Mary Kicza, NOAA-NESDIS; and Richard Behnke, National Science Foundation. The third day included a presentation and discussion about optical communications with John Rush, director of systems planning, NASA Space Communications Office. The SSB executive committee (XCOM) met on August 4-5 at the J. Erik Jonsson Woods Hole Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for its annual strategic planning session. The XCOM meet with Jean Pierre Swings (European Space Science Committee Chair) and Jean-Claude Worms (European Science Foundation) for a discussion on emerging space powers. The committee also received status reports from Steve Squyres, chair of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and Betsy Cantwell, chair of the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space. The Board met at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, November 3-4. The major focus of the meeting was the Augustine Commission Report with briefings from Com- mission members Ed Crawley (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Jeff Greason (XCOR Aerospace). In addition, David Bearden (Aerospace Corporation) reviewed the cost estimate methodology used by the Commis- 8

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9 Board and Standing Committees sion. The Board also heard congressional views of the Commission’s report from Chan Lieu and Jeff Bingham of the Senate Commerce Committee and Dick Obermann of the House Science Committee. The Board was also briefed by Mark Uhran (NASA) on the enhanced utilization plan for the International Space Station. The workshop originally planned for this meeting was rescheduled for November 2010. It was the opinion of the planning com- mittee that inadequate time was available this year to organize a workshop on the selected theme that would be the desired caliber. sPaCe sTUDies BOarD MeMBershiP Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego (chair) A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) (vice chair) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado at Boulder Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Dr. Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Berrien Moore III, Climate Central Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Soroosh Sorooshian, University of California, Irvine Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota Ellen G. Zweibel, University of Wisconsin Ex Officio and Liaison Members Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) (ex officio, chair, NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Jay S. Pearlman, IEEE (ex officio, member of the NRC Ocean Studies Board) Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (liaison, U.S. representative to COSPAR) Jean-Pierre Swings, Université de Liège (liaison, chair of the European Space Science Committee)

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 Membership of the 2006 SSB Executive Committee July 1, 2008–June 30, 2009 July 1, 2009–June 30, 2010 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego (chair) (chair) A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) (vice chair) (retired) (vice chair) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, , Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory,, California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Staff in 2009 Marcia S. Smith, Director (left the SSB on March 1) Richard E. Rowberg, Interim Board Director (as of March 2) Brant L. Sponberg, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer Robert L. Riemer,† Senior Program Officer, BPA David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer John Wendt,† Senior Program Officer, ASEB Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer Brian D. Dewhurst,† Program Officer, ASEB (left the ASEB in August) Paul Jackson,† Program Officer, ASEB David Lang, † Program Officer, BPA Abigail A. Sheffer, Associate Program Officer (promoted in December) Lewis Groswald, Research Associate (promoted in May) Victoria Swisher, Research Associate (left the SSB in August) Celeste A. Naylor, Information Management Associate (promoted in January) Tanja Pilzak, Manager, Program Operations Christina O. Shipman, Financial Officer Sandra Wilson, Financial Assistant Catherine A. Gruber, Editor (promoted in March) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator (promoted in March) Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate (retired in May) Andrea Rebholz,† Program Associate, ASEB Dionna Williams, Program Associate (joined SSB in June) Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant (joined SSB in June) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant Linda M. Walker, Senior Project Assistant __________________ †Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB. Consultants Regina North (joined SSB in February)

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 Board and Standing Committees Space Policy Interns Elena Amador, Autumn 2009 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Jordan Bock, Summer 2009 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Abigail Fraeman, Space Policy Intern Abigail A. Sheffer, Fall 2009 Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow Angie Wolfgang, Summer 2009 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern U.s. NaTiONaL COMMiTTee FOr COsPar The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council of Science held its annual busi- ness meetings in Paris on March 16-19, 2009. The next COSPAR scientific assemblies will take place in Bremen, Germany, on July 18-25, 2010, and Mysore, India, on July 15-22, 2014. Annual business meetings will be held at COSPAR’s Paris headquarters on March 22-25, 2010. The membership term of Edward Stone, the current U.S. representative to COSPAR ends in 2010. The SSB, acting in its role as the U.S. National Committee for COSPAR, nominated Robert Lin of the University of California, Berkeley, as the new U.S. representative. The NRC’s Executive Office ratified the nomination, and Dr. Lin will take over his new role on July 1, 2010. Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (U.S. Representative to COSPAR) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (Executive Secretary for COSPAR) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB sTaNDiNG COMMiTTees COMMiTTee ON asTrONOMY aND asTrOPhYsiCs The Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the BPA, continued to be on hiatus until the completion of the astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey. A historical summary of reports from CAA and related committees is presented in Figure 2.1. David Lang, Program Officer, BPA (from September) Brian D. Dewhurst, Program Officer, ASEB (through August) COMMiTTee ON earTh sTUDies The Committee on Earth Studies did not meet during the first quarter. The committee met on April 16-17, 2009, in Washington, D.C., at the National Academies’ Keck Center. Highlights of the meeting included updates on activities at NASA’s Earth Science Division and at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS), which were provided by NASA Earth Science Division director Michael Freilich and NOAA assistant administrator for satellite and information services, Mary Kicza, respectively; a videoconference with Dan Baker and Peter Pilewskie from the University of Colorado on the potential role of small satellites in Earth observations; a discussion with Ed Crawley from MIT, who has developed a modeling tool that can be used to optimize investments in the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey; an update on GEOSS and CEOS activities, which was presented by committee member Jay Pearlman; a discussion with University of Wisconsin researcher Hank Revercomb on prospects for restoring sound- ing capabilities in next-generation GOES satellites; and updates on several prospective and ongoing NRC studies. The committee is currently engaged in follow-up discussions with NASA and NOAA on potential ad hoc studies or workshops that would be of mutual interest. Several members of the committee participated in the June 15-16, 2009, workshop “Geoengineering Options to Respond to Climate Change: Steps to Establish a Research Agenda,” which was organized by CES staff officer Art Charo. The workshop brought some 120 scientists, engineers, philosophers, political scientists, economists, and policy experts together to examine proposed “geoengineering” approaches, or interventions in the climate system,

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1979) Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1982) Institutional Arrangements for the Space Telescope (1976) Institutional Arrangements The Explorer Program for Long-Lived Space Space Science in the Twenty- for the Space Telescope: A First Centur yAstronomy and Astronomy and Observatories for Astronomy Mid-Term Review (1985) Astrophysics (1986) and Astrophysics (1987) Astrophysics (1988) The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991) A Strategy for Ground -Based A Scientific Assessment of Review of Gravity Optical and Infrared a New Technology Orbital Probe B (1995) Astronomy (1995) Telescope (1995) Federal Funding of Failed Stars and Super A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy Ground-Based Solar Astronomical Planets (1998) and Astrophysics (1997) Research (1998) Research (2000) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (2000) U.S. Astronomy and “Review of Science The Atacama Large Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (2002) Astrophysics: Managing Requirements for the Millimeter Array (ALMA): an Integrated Program Terrestrial Planet Finder: Implications of a (2001) Letter Repor t” (2004) Potential Descope “The Review of Progress in (2005) Astronomy and Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision Por tals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy The Astrophysical (The Mid-Course Review) ” (2005) Science Centers (2007) Context of Life (2005) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An A Performance Assessment of NASA ’s Architecture for Implementation (2007) Astrophysics Program (2007) FIGURE 2.1 SSB-NRC advice on astronomy and astrophysics (1979-2007). Figure 2.1 R01747 SSB Annual Repor t 2009

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 Board and Standing Committees with an emphasis on the research needed to better understand the potential efficacy and consequences of the various approaches. Information from the workshop is being used to inform the work of the NRC’s “America’s Climate Choices” (http://americasclimatechoices.org) panels and steering committee. http://americasclimatechoices.org)) and CES met on October 19-20 in Washington, D.C., and received briefings from Mary Kicza, NOAA assistant administrator for satellite and information services, and from Michael Freilich, director of NASA’s Earth Science Division. Committee discussions focused on issues related to the implementation of the 2007 decadal survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space, the status of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), and potential workshops or studies of interest to agency sponsors. The committee also received updates on several prospective and ongoing NRC studies. Members of the committee and staff have also participated in the development of a study, “Assessing Require- ments for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations,” which is being led by the NRC’s Ocean Studies Board and several members and staff are participating in this study and “America’s Climate Choices.” The chair of the committee, Berrien Moore, presented testimony before the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics of the House Committee on Science and Technology on June 18, 2009, for a hearing entitled, “Opportunities and Challenges for NASA Science Programs.” Committee member Antonio Busalacchi, Jr., testified on March 18, 2009, at a hearing entitled “Critical Satellite Climate Change Datasets” before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies of the House Committee on Appropriations. Members of the committee and staff also appeared in a number of forums to discuss issues related to implementation of the decadal survey. A historical summary of reports from CES and related committees is presented in Figure 2.2. Membership Berrien Moore III, Climate Central (chair) Ruth S. DeFries, Columbia University (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Richard A. Anthes, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Solutions Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Heidi M. Dierssen, University of Connecticut, Avery Point Hung-Lung Allen Huang, University of Wisconsin, Madison Anne W. Nolin, Oregon State University Jay S. Pearlman, Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, SSB (through May) Dionna Williams, Program Associate, SSB (from June) COMMiTTee ON The OriGiNs aND eVOLUTiON OF LiFe The Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Life Sciences, began 2009 with a major membership rotation to replace those individuals whose terms ended in 2008. Six new appointments were made, including that of J. Gregory Ferry (Pennsylvania State University), who was named the committee’s new life-sciences co-chair. COEL held its first meeting of 2009 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on February 18-20, 2009. The meeting was primarily devoted to various aspects of the NASA Astrobiology Institute’s (NAI’s) activities, including presentations from Mary Voytek, acting director of NASA’s Astrobiology Program; Carl Pilcher, director of the NAI; and the principal investigators of the NAI teams at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the Georgia Institute of Technology, and the New York Center for Astrobiology. In addition, COEL was briefed on the process being used to identify the landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory and on the outcome of the NASA-European Space Agency prioritiza-

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 NASA's Plans for Post -2002 Ear th Observing Missions (1999) “On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission” (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) Issues in the Integration of Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research —I. Systems for Climate Research —II. Science and Design (2000) Implementation (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applicatio ns (2001) Toward New Par tnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Ear th Science Research (2002) Review of NASA's Ear th Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government: Information for Program Plan (2002) Management and Decision Making (2003) Satellite Observations of the Ear th's Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (2003) “Assessment of NASA's Draft 2003 Ear th Science Enterprise Steps to Facilitate Principal -Investigator -Led Ear th Science Missions (2004) Strategy” (2003) Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (2004) Review of Goals and Plans for NASA's Space and Ear th Sciences (2005) Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Ear th Observing Research Missions (2005) “A Review of NASA's 2006 Draft Science Plan: Letter Repor t” (2006) Ear th Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Oppor tunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Ear th Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Repor t (2007)* Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (2008) Uncer tainty Management in Remote Sensing of Climate Data: Summary of a Workshop (2009) *The edited and final version of this Workshop Summary is also i ncluded as Appendix B in Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft (2008) FIGURE 2.2 SSB-NRC advice on Earth science and applications in space (1979-2009). Figure 2.2 R01747 SSB Annual Repor t 2009

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 Board and Standing Committees tion process for the outer solar system flagship missions. Finally, the committee heard a presentation from Frances Westall, COEL’s liaison with the European Space Science Committee, on the challenges of searching for traces of life in 3.5-billion-year-old rocks on Earth. Although COEL did not meet during the second quarter, the committee was engaged in defining a potential task related to planetary protection measures for spacecraft missions to the icy bodies of the outer solar system. The committee is also encouraging members of the astrobiology community to draft white papers to support the goals of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. The committee met in Big Sky, Montana, on September 1-3 in order to allow for a site visit to Yellowstone National Park where the committee visited Lower Geyser Basin and Old Faithful. The committee also heard presen- tations from several local research groups, including the Idaho National Laboratory and Montana State University’s NAI teams and the Thermal Biology Institute. In addition, the committee heard about the latest developments in NASA’s Astrobiology program and the NAI. Finally, the committee heard several presentations relating to planetary protection issues for icy solar system satellites. COEL did not meet during the fourth quarter, as the December meeting was cancelled and replaced by a con- ference call held on December 3. In support of a potential future study project, a subset of committee members, including co-chair Robert Pappalardo, and committee staff participated in COSPAR’s Icy Satellites Planetary Pro- tection Workshop, held at the California Institute of Technology on December 9-10. A historical summary of reports from COEL and related committees is presented in Figure 2.3. Membership July 1, 2008–June 30, 2009 July 1, 2009–June 30, 2010 Kenneth H. Nealson,† University of Southern J. Gregory Ferry,* Pennsylvania State University California (co-chair) (co-chair) Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (co-chair) California Institute of Technology (co-chair) Stanley M. Awramik, University of California, Santa Stanley M. Awramik, University of California, Santa Barbara Barbara Katrina J. Edwards,* University of Southern California Paul G. Falkowski, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Paul G. Falkowski, Rutgers, The State University of Antonio Lazcano, Universidad Nacional Autonoma New Jersey Margo G. Haygood,* University of Colorado, Boulder de Mexico Dante Lauretta,* University of Arizona Ralph D. Lorenz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Antonio Lazcano, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de John C. Priscu, Montana State University Mexico Sara Seager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ralph D. Lorenz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Everett Shock, Arizona State University Physics Laboratory Jeff Moersch,* University of Tennessee, Knoxville __________________ † Term ended on December 31, 2008. John C. Priscu, Montana State University Sara Seager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Everett Shock, Arizona State University Cristina Takacs-Vesbach,* University of New Mexico __________________ *Term began on February 17, 2009. Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, BPA Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 Planetary Protection Mars Conference on Hazard of Planetary Contamination Due to Microbiol ogical Contamination in the Interior of Spacecraft Components (1965) Biology and the “Study on the Exploration of Mars (1965) Biological Quarantine of Venus ” (1967) “Review of the Extraterrestrial Life —An Sterilization Anthology and Bibliography, Parameter Probability Supplementary to Biology and Astrobiology “Review of Planetary of Growth (Pg)” the Exploration of Mars (1966) Quarantine Policy” (1970) (1972) “On Contamination of the Life Sciences in Space (1970) Outer Planets by Earth Organisms ” (1976) Post -Viking Biological “Recommendation on Quarantine Policy for Investigations of Mars (1977) Uranus, Neptune, and Titan” (1976) Origin and Evolution of Life— Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Implications for the Planets: A Scientific Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Titan (1978) Strategy for the 1980s (1981) “On NASA Policy for Planetary “On Categorization of the The Search for Life ’s Strategy for the Protection” (1985) Mars Orbiter Mission” (1985) Origins: Progress and Detection and Study of Future Directions in Other Planetary Planetary Biology and Systems and Extrasolar “Recommendation on “On Categorization Chemical Evolution (1990) Planetary Materials: Planetary Protection of the Comet 1990-2000 (1990) Categorization of the Comet Rendezvous – Biological Contamination Rendezvous -Asteroid Flyby Asteroid Flyby of Mars: Issues and Mission and the Titan- Mission” (1986) Recommendations (1992) Cassini Mission ” (1988) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Mars Sample Return: Issues Sciences: 1995 -2010 (1994) and Recommendations Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned (1997) from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making (1998) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) Preventing the “On Scientific Forward Assessment of Options Contamination of for the Disposition of the The Quarantine and Certification Europa (2000) Galileo Spacecraft” of Mar tian Samples (2002) (2000) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2002) Preventing the Forward “Assessment of Planetary Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and Contamination of Mars (2006) Protection Requirements for International Programs in Astrobiology (2003) Venus Missions” (2006) An Astrobiology Strategy for The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) the Exploration of Mars (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) Assessment of Planetary The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) (2009) FIGURE 2.3 SSB-NRC advice on astrobiology and planetary protection (1965-2009). Figure 2.3 R01747 SSB Annual Repor t 2009

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 Board and Standing Committees COMMiTTee ON PLaNeTarY aND LUNar eXPLOraTiON The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration is on hiatus until the completion of the planetary sciences decadal survey. A historical summary of reports from COMPLEX and related committees is presented in Figure 2.4. Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, SSB COMMiTTee ON sOLar aND sPaCe PhYsiCs The Committee on Solar and Space Physics did not meet until the last quarter of the year, although members held several teleconferences and met in smaller groups at professional meetings and other forums. On December 3-4, the committee met in Washington, D.C. The meeting focused on planning for the upcoming solar and space physics (heliophysics) decadal survey, which will get underway in spring 2010. To that end, the committee received briefings from Richard Behnke, director of the Upper Atmosphere Research Section at the National Science Founda- tion (NSF); Tom Bogdan, director of NOAA’s Space Weather Prediction Center; and Richard Fisher, director of the Heliophysics Division within NASA’s SMD. NASA, NSF, NOAA, and the Department of Defense (Air Force and Navy) were sponsors of the previous decadal survey in solar and space physics, The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond, which was completed in 2003. The committee was also briefed by Space Studies Board member Andy Christensen, who chaired the recently completed heliophysics roadmap for NASA. Lessons learned from previous and ongoing NRC decadal surveys were discussed during briefings by several staff members of the SSB. As the quarter ended, the committee was engaged in extensive discussions with potential sponsors of the survey regarding its terms of refer- ence, organization, and schedule. The March 3-5, 2010, meeting of the committee in Boulder, Colorado, will finalize plans for survey initiation; following this meeting, the committee will stand down for the duration of the survey. A historical summary of reports from CSSP and related committees is presented in Figure 2.5. Membership* Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, chair Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan, vice chair Joseph F. Fennell, Aerospace Corporation Maura E. Hagan, National Center for Atmospheric Research Randy Jokipii, University of Arizona Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Angeles William S. Lewis, Southwest Research Institute Ramón E. López, University of Texas Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College Richard A. Mewaldt, California Institute of Technology Merav Opher, George Mason University Howard J. Singer, NOAA Space Environment Center Ronald E. Turner, ANSER Corporation __________________ *All terms ended on June 30, 2009. Staff Brant L. Sponberg, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer, SSB Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, SSB (through May) Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB (from May)

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8 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANETS PRIMITIVE BODIES Lunar Exploration—Strategy for The Outer Solar System: A Research: 1969 -1975 (1969) Program for Exploration (1969) Venus: Strategy for Outer Planets Exploration: Exploration (1970) 1972-1985 (1971) “Report of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,” Section II of Repor t on Space Science—1975 (1976) Strategy for the Exploration of Primitive Solar-System Strategy for Exploration of the A Strategy for Exploration Bodies—Asteroids, Comets, Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) of the Outer Planets: and Meteoroids: 1980-1990 1986-1996 (1986) (1980) Update to Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets (1990) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995 -2010 (1994) A Science Strategy for the Assessment of Mars Exploring the Trans- Exploration of Europa (1999) Science and Mission Neptunian Solar Priorities (2001) System (1998) The Exploration of The Quarantine and Near-Ear th Objects Cer tification of Mar tian (1998) Samples (2001) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propuls ion (2005) Assessment of NASA's Mars The Scientific Context for Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) Exploration of the Moon (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) An Astrobiology Strategy for the The Limits of Organic Life in Planetar y Systems (2007) Exploration of Mars (2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008) Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008) Science Oppor tunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System: In terim Report (2008) Launching Science: Science Oppor tunities Provided by NASA ’s Constellation System (2009) Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (2009) FIGURE 2.4 SSB-NRC advice on solar system exploration (1969-2009). Origins of life topics are covered in Figure 2.3. Figure 2.4 R01747 SSB Annual Repor t 2009

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9 Board and Standing Committees Solar System Space Physics in the 1980 ’s: A Research Strategy (1980) An International Discussion on A Strategy for the Explorer The Physics of the Solar-Terrestrial Data Access, Research in Solar and Space Program for Solar and Space Sun (1985) Distribution, and Archiving (1984) Physics (1983) Physics (1984) An Implementation Plan for Priorities in Solar -System Space Physics (1985) Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015Solar and Space Physics (1988) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (1991) A Space Physics Paradox (1994) A Science Strategy for Space Physics (1995) Scientific Assessment of NASA’s Space Weather: An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics A Research NASA’s Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (1997) Mission Selections (1997) Perspective (1997) Astronomy and Radiation and the Readiness for the Ground-Based Solar Research: Astrophysics in the International Space Station: Upcoming Solar An Assessment and Strategy for New Millennium Recommendations to Maximum (1998) the Future (1998) (2000) Reduce Risk (1999) The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) The Sun to the Ear th—and Beyond: Panel Repor ts (2003) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Exploration of the Outer Distributed Arrays of Small Solar and Space Physics Heliosphere and the Local Instruments for Solar- and Its Role in Space Interstellar Medium: A Terrestrial Research: Repor t Exploration (2004) Workshop Report (2004) of a Workshop (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration: Report of a Workshop (2006) Severe Space Weather Events Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Repor t (2008) A Performance Assessment of NASA's Heliophysics Program (2009) FIGURE 2.5 SSB-NRC advice on solar and space physics (1980-2009). Figure 2.5 R01747 SSB Annual Repor t 2009

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—009 sPaCe researCh DisCiPLiNes WiThOUT sTaNDiNG COMMiTTee rePreseNTaTiON Although there are no longer standing committees representing microgravity research or space biology and medicine, a life and microgravity decadal survey is being conducted (see Chapter 3). A historical summary of NRC- SSB advice in space biology and medicine is presented in Figure 2.6, and a historical summary of NRC-SSB advice microgravity research is presented in Figure 2.7. HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT STUDIES SPACE BIOLOGY Science in Space: Biological Science and Space Research (1960) Repor t on NASA Biology Program (1968) Physiology in the Space Radiobiological Factors in Environment , Vol. 1 and 2 Manned Spaceflight (1967) Space Biology (1970) (1968) Radiation Protection Infectious Disease Life Sciences in Space: Repor t Guides and in Manned of the Study to Review NASA Constraints for Spaceflight: Life Sciences Programs (1970) Space-Mission and Probabilities and Vehicle -Design Countermeasures Studies Involving (1970) Priorities for Space Research: Nuclear Missions 1971-1980 (1971) (1970) HZE-Par ticle Effects in Manned Scientific Uses of the Life Beyond the Ear th's Spaceflight (1973) Space Shuttle (1974) Environment (1979) A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) “On the Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Life Sciences (1988) Extended Duration Orbiter Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine1991 Medical (1991) Research “On Several Issues in the Program” (1989) Space Life Sciences” (1993) “On Continued Operation of the BEVALAC Facility” (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues “On the Planned and Research Strategies (1996) “On Peer Review in National Space NASA Life Sciences Biomedical Programs” (1995) Research Institute” (1996) A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (1998) Review of NASA's Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physi cal Biomedical Research Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Program (2000) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) FIGURE 2.6 SSB-NRC advice on space biology and medicine (1960-2006). Figure 2.7 R01747 SSB Annual Repor t 2009

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 Board and Standing Committees Materials Processing in Space (1978) Space Science in the Twenty-First Microgravity Science and Century: Applications: Report on a Imperatives for the Workshop (1986, Board on Decades 1995 to Physics and Astronomy) 2015. Fundamental Physics and Chemistry (1988) Toward a Microgravity Research Strategy (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) “On the Utilization of the Space Station” (1994) Microgravity Research Oppor tunities for the 1990s (1995) “On Archiving An Initial Review of Clarification of Microgravity Microgravity Research in Issues in the Flight Data and Suppor t of Human Exploration Oppor tunities Samples and Development of Space Repor t” (1995) (1996) (1997) “On Research Facilities Planning for the International Space Station” (1997) Future Biotechnology Research on the Microgravity Research in Suppor t of Technologies for the Human International Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Space Station (2000) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Sciences Research at NASA (2001) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2003) for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) FIGURE 2.7 SSB-NRC advice on microgravity research (1978-2006). Figure 2.6 R01747 SSB Annual Repor t 2009