Indicators of Russian progress in S&T beyond the short term should include monitoring the percentage of S&T funded privately versus by government; the change in direct foreign S&T investment within Russia; the age, qualification, and field of S&T personnel; the change in the entry of Russian commercial products into global markets; the changes in the numbers of foreign researchers entering Russia and of Russians leaving Russia; and the change in the national stature of Russian S&T personnel.

The rate and scale of cultural changes that China has implemented to build its S&T innovation environment are notable, especially when compared to the other countries studied. Continued improvements in its S&T innovation environment depend on its continued facilitation of cultural changes, making cultural change an important nontraditional indicator when evaluating China’s progress. Singapore’s challenge lies in balancing its tightly controlled culture with the influx of foreign workers (31 percent of the total employment), new ideas, a more highly educated citizenry, and the potential for terrorist attacks.

Finding 10-7. Country-specific, traditional and nontraditional indicators can provide a meaningful measure of national S&T strength and prospects for future change. No single set of common indicators across all countries was found to provide such a measure. Nontraditional indicators are country-specific and are essential to understanding each country’s S&T innovation environment and especially to predicting future change.

Finding 10-8. Nontraditional national indicators of the S&T innovation environment include those that emerge from the cultural context of a country and impact the future S&T innovation environment of the country. These indicators are especially important for predicting future change in the S&T innovation environment. The cultural contexts of Brazil, Japan, India, and Russia have hindered their S&T innovation developments and will continue to do so for at least the near term and likely longer. Singapore has taken advantage of its small size and highly centralized government to launch ambitious initiatives and instigate changes rapidly. Similarly, China has used its authoritarian political system to define a national S&T plan.

Finding 10-9. When a country can facilitate the cultural changes needed for its S&T innovation environment goals, its capability to achieve them increases significantly. It is among the best indicators of future success. China and Singapore have demonstrated high capability to change cultural norms to achieve their S&T goals, although encouraging individual creativity and independence remains an unrealized need for both of them. Brazil has demonstrated the capability to change cultural norms. India has demonstrated culture changes also, but its democratic society imposes limitations on its actions. Japan has demonstrated less of a capability, and Russia the least capability, for cultural change among the countries.

Recommendation 10-4. For each country of interest, the United States should identify country-specific measures of S&T innovation environments, including nontraditional indicators that are appropriate for targeted technologies and developments. The United States should monitor each country’s capacity to facilitate the cultural changes needed to achieve its global S&T innovation goals. These indicators are especially important for predicting future changes in S&T innovation environments.


A global competition for S&T talent is underway. Countries are using a variety of strategies to recruit talent, including luring expatriates and experts from abroad with superior financial support, offering top working conditions and research facilities, expanding higher education opportunities to attract internal and external students, and recruiting multinational companies to open S&T facilities. Each country understands that talent is the coin of the S&T realm, although they differ in their effectiveness in satisfying the need.

China and Singapore offer exciting opportunities, incentives for S&T careers, superior and specialized facilities, top infrastructure, and financial supports to attract talent from abroad and at home. With an eye on the long term, they are investing heavily in doctoral S&T education, key universities, and research parks at universities. Multinational corporations are also engaged in both countries, even if they are attracted to China and Singapore for

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