different reasons. They are attracted to China by access to the very large marketplace and talent pool, despite the open risk of losing intellectual property and technology acquisition. In comparison, Singapore offers an exceptional S&T infrastructure, laws and a culture that are friendly to global business, political stability, lack of corruption, an English-speaking environment, and relatively high salaries. As a consequence, however, multinational corporate research experiences are educating their domestic workforces.

Japan faces reduced interest in S&T by Japanese students, discouragement of women in the workforce, a declining and aging population, and a national distrust of immigration. These challenging realities slow expansion of the talent pool. India plans to expand educational opportunities at universities, but for financial reasons cannot do so on a large scale for the near term. Expatriates are returning to India, and substantial numbers of multinational companies are welcome there. However, the near-term growth of the talent pool for S&T through education and international recruitment is positive but limited. Brazil currently has an S&T talent shortage, relatively low interest in S&T in its university students, a disconnect between industry and universities, and little research opportunity in industry. No significant immigration of S&T talent occurs. These circumstances, along with a conservative development philosophy, indicate that the S&T talent shortage in Brazil will continue for at least the next five years. Russia is experiencing an aging S&T workforce, a decreasing national population, an exodus of S&T talent, and low immigration rates. Although its higher education is superior, it remains disconnected from research and S&T innovation in industry. Its older R&D talent pool serves its current S&T strengths (space, energy, nuclear, military) but displays low prospects for assuming leadership in other recent technologies.

Finding 10-10. Each of the six countries studied understands the value of top talent in its S&T innovation environment, but only China and Singapore have been able to greatly expand S&T education nationally, although China remains a work in progress for both quality and the quantity of higher education opportunities. China, Singapore, and India actively recruit multinational corporations to bring talent from abroad, and create opportunities for talent from abroad to work in their country using recruiting tools like state-of-the-art research facilities, competitive salaries, and research opportunities.

Recommendation 10-5. The most successful global S&T innovation environments will recruit S&T talent into attractive positions with excellent facilities and research support. The United States should track the quality and availability of research facilities and research support as a significant indicator of any country’s attractiveness to the world’s S&T talent.

Recommendation 10-6. The United States should continue to gauge the efficiency of research, measured by the effective uses of research talent and research facilities, which portends the future of a county’s innovation environment. Efficiency ultimately guides the use of research talent and facilities. For instance, the monitoring of non-research responsibilities of scientists (such as administration and proposal writing) and the quality of research infrastructure could be incorporated into measures of efficiency. Highly efficient S&T systems support the most attractive research careers for talented S&T contributors.

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