perspectives on the technical issues and the associated political and social contexts under consideration.

Workshops usually were designed to include six to ten prepared presentations by American participants and a comparable number by Iranian participants. The multilateral workshops were organized to include a larger number of presentations since specialists from other countries were also invited to make presentations. However, due to personal travel problems and unanticipated developments, the number of in-person presentations varied considerably. On several occasions, papers were submitted by specialists who were unable to attend; and these papers were distributed to attendees. A few of these papers were included as appendices to the Proceedings of the workshops. The minimum number of in-person Iranian presentations at a single workshop was two (on one occasion), and the maximum was 30. The minimum number of American presentations was two (on one occasion), and the maximum was 15.

Proceedings, which included the texts of the presentations, were prepared for most of the workshops and published without restrictions on distribution. While preparation of the Proceedings took considerable effort, they have provided a useful record of most of the workshops. Some copies have been distributed to requesters many years after they were published. Published Proceedings are identified throughout this chapter and in Appendix G.

Set forth below are comments on the various workshops. The workshops are clustered under general topics. An important criterion in selecting topics for workshops has been ensuring a symmetry of interests and capabilities. Each side has been expected to bring ideas to the table so that neither side dominates discussions. When appropriate, descriptions of follow-on activities are included in the discussions throughout this chapter. Chapter 5 addresses scientific and political impacts of the workshops and other events, beyond those mentioned in this chapter, to the extent that impacts can be ascertained or anticipated.


Food security/food safety was identified as a potential workshop topic by both sides at the outset of the program in 2000. However, during a joint planning session on the workshop program in 2003, specialists from Iran and the United States decided that this topic was simply too broad for a single workshop or even a workshop series. They agreed to focus initial joint efforts on food-borne diseases, with disease surveillance and responses to food

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