unemployment uncertainties. At the same time, science offers rallying points for bringing parties together nationally and internationally without the need for any party to make political compromises.

Cooperative projects can continue to facilitate integration of Iran’s scientific aspirations with global realities and with the interests of the United States and other science leaders. Scientific cooperation is one of the few options for bridging differences that separate the two governments. Together, the two scientific communities can begin moving toward important scientific gateways to understanding and international security. Hopefully, the roads through the gateways will be short and will offer rewards for science and for the general populations of the two countries.



1. National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators, Vol. 1, p. 5-42, 2008.


2. See, for example, Glenn E. Schweitzer, Interacademy Programs between the United States and Eastern Europe 1976-2009, pp. 26, 27, 29, 34.


3. Declan Butler, “Plagiarism Scandal Grows in Iran,” Nature, Vol. 462, December 10, 2009, p. 704.


4. Information on ISI activities provided in March 2010 by james.testa@thomsonreuters.com.


5. Mojtaba Shamsipur, “The Role of Chemistry and Biology in the Future Development of Iran,” Science and Technology and the Future Development of Societies, International Workshop Proceedings, National Academies Press, 2008, pp. 66-69. Also, Declan Butler, “The Data Gap,” Nature, Vol. 444, 2 November 2006, pp. 26-27.


6. Department of State, January 2010.


7. For a polling report on the very positive attitudes in Iran and selected Arab countries of U.S. scientific achievements, see Changing Minds, Winning Peace—A New Direction for U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim World, Report of the Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of Representatives, 1 October 2003.

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