R&D at Government Facilities

National Research Centers of Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology: 29

Research Centers of Ministry of Health and Medical Education: 99

Research Centers of Other Ministries: 69

R&D at Business Enterprises

R&D Units in Industry: 925

Private Research Centers: 113


SOURCE: Vice Minister Mansour Kabganian, Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology, “Science and Research Policies and Some Related Action Programmes for Sustainable Development of Iran,” Dr. M. Tavakol, Editor, Regional Forum on Science and Technology Policy for Sustainable Development, 21-23 January 2006, Tehran, Iranian National Commission for UNESCO, Tehran, 2006.

Communications

Telephone Lines

International: submarine fiber optic cable to UAE with connection to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); fiber optic line from Azerbaijan through Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; HF, radio, and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan. Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; 13 satellite earth stations (2007)


Domestic: 25 million lines (2008)

Telephones

24.8 million main line and 43 million mobile cellular

Radio Broadcast Stations

72 AM, 6 FM, and 5 shortwave (1998)



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