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FIGURE 3.3 An example of convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in two large-brained taxa (elephants and humans). All data presented and images are adapted from previously published work (Goodman et al., 2009). (A) Species phylogeny based on DNA and fossil evidence (Hallström et al., 2007; Murphy et al., 2007; Wildman et al., 2007; Prasad et al., 2008). Lineages of interest are highlighted. (B) Life history and phenotype variables among study taxa. Values given are averages. More information and references for these values can be found in Table S1 of Goodman et al. (2009). (C) Lineage protein-coding sequence evolution for 501 mitochondria-related genes.

FIGURE 3.3 An example of convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in two large-brained taxa (elephants and humans). All data presented and images are adapted from previously published work (Goodman et al., 2009). (A) Species phylogeny based on DNA and fossil evidence (Hallström et al., 2007; Murphy et al., 2007; Wildman et al., 2007; Prasad et al., 2008). Lineages of interest are highlighted. (B) Life history and phenotype variables among study taxa. Values given are averages. More information and references for these values can be found in Table S1 of Goodman et al. (2009). (C) Lineage protein-coding sequence evolution for 501 mitochondria-related genes.

in tenrec and mouse lineages or in the other examined mammalian pair (the two laurasiatherians Bos taurus and Canis familiaris).

THE HUMAN BRAIN, DIFFERENT BY DEGREE AND NOT KIND

Darwin’s insight that the modern human mind does not differ in kind but rather in degree from other mammalian minds, in our opinion, should serve as the main guidepost for pursuing a phylogenomic search for the genetic roots of the modern human mind. The prospect that high-quality genome sequences will be obtained from thousands of different mammals (Genome 10K Community of Scientists, 2009) promises to make possible such a phylogenomic search. Key to the search will be dense representation of the species and genera in each extant mammalian order. The phylogenetic tree of mammals inferred from genome sequences can then be used to uncover in each evolved lineage the genetic changes that had



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