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TABLE 5.1 Inferred Population Clusters Using the STRUCTURE Analysis of Autosomal Microsatellite and Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism Data from Global Populations Adapted from Tishkoff et al. (2009)

K

Emerging Clusters

2

African, non-African

3

East Asian, Oceanic, Native American

4

Eastern African

5

Hadza, Sandawe, SAK, Pygmy

6

Western Pygmy

7

Chadic, Nilo-Saharan

8

Indian, Oceanic

9

Oceanic

10

Native American

11

Mbuti Pygmy, SAK

12

Chadic/Nilo-Saharan speakers from northern Cameroon, Chad, and southern Sudan

13

Sandawe

14

Fulani

neighbor-joining tree on the basis of pairwise population genetic distances that showed that the African samples clustered primarily by geographic region and to a lesser extent by linguistic affiliation with a few notable exceptions. The pygmies from central Africa, for example, clustered near the southern African San.

Several studies have looked at the relationship between genetic and linguistic variation in African samples (Sanchez-Mazas, 2001; Lane et al., 2002; Tishkoff et al., 2007a, 2009; Hassan et al., 2008; Henn et al., 2008; Bryc et al., 2010). For example, an NRY study of Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo, and Afroasiatic speakers in Sudan revealed a strong correlation (Mantel test: r = 0.31, P = 0.007) between linguistic and NRY variation (Hassan et al., 2008), and in this case the correlation between linguistic and genetic variation was stronger than the correlation between geographic and genetic distances (Mantel test: r = 0.29, P = 0.025). Similarly, a study of mtDNA and NRY variation in 40 African samples representing all four language families reports a significant correlation between genetic and linguistic distances (Mantel of NRY, r = 0.32, P = 0.001; Mantel of mtDNA, r = 0.23, P = 0.016) (Wood et al., 2005).

The single-locus studies of genetic and linguistic correlation are consistent with the regression analysis reported by Tishkoff et al. (2009) that documents significant correlations between linguistic and genetic distances



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