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FIGURE 5.3 Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of autosomal microsatellite data from Tishkoff et al. (2009). A pairwise genetic distance matrix using (δμ)2 [as described in Tishkoff et al. (2009)] was constructed for populations with a sample size of n ≥ 10 and used for MDS analysis. Populations are distinguished on the basis of linguistic affiliation. The Afroasiatic speakers are displayed as open circles, the Nilo-Saharan speakers are displayed as triangles, the Khoesan speakers are displayed as filled circles, and the Niger-Kordofanian speakers are displayed as squares. The Khoesan speakers are labeled. The x axis represents dimension 1 and the y axis represents dimension 2.

FIGURE 5.3 Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of autosomal microsatellite data from Tishkoff et al. (2009). A pairwise genetic distance matrix using (δμ)2 [as described in Tishkoff et al. (2009)] was constructed for populations with a sample size of n ≥ 10 and used for MDS analysis. Populations are distinguished on the basis of linguistic affiliation. The Afroasiatic speakers are displayed as open circles, the Nilo-Saharan speakers are displayed as triangles, the Khoesan speakers are displayed as filled circles, and the Niger-Kordofanian speakers are displayed as squares. The Khoesan speakers are labeled. The x axis represents dimension 1 and the y axis represents dimension 2.

origin for the Fulani (Ehret, 2008), and there has been some speculation based on linguistic data that the Fulani migrated to central Africa from northern Africa or the Middle East (Ehret, 2008). In addition, there is evidence of shared recent ancestry and/or gene among the Fulani and European/Middle Eastern samples from studies of mtDNA (Cerny et al., 2006), NRY (Hassan et al., 2008), and autosomal microsatellites (Tishkoff et al., 2009) and from the presence in this population of the mutation associated with lactose tolerance in Europeans (T-13910) (Mulcare et al., 2004).

Whereas previous work on mtDNA (Cerny et al., 2006) is consistent with a West African origin for the Fulani (consistent with their Niger-Kordofanian language classification), the NRY data reveal that the Fulani share recent ancestry with Nilo-Saharan- and Afroasiatic-speaking populations (Hassan et al., 2008). As in other cases where the maternal and paternal patterns of population history are not in agreement, this result could reflect differential patterns of Fulani male and female migration and gene flow, or it could reflect the influence of genetic drift or some



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