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FIGURE 5.4 Multidimensional scaling (MDS) (k = 2) analysis of data from Tishkoff et al. (2009). We included central African populations with a sample of n e 10, constructed a pairwise distance matrix using (´¼)2 (as described in Tishkoff et al., 2009), and the population samples are displayed by linguistic affiliation. The Afroasiatic speakers are shown as open circles, the Nilo-Saharan speakers are shown as triangles, and the Niger-Kordofanian speakers are shown as squares. The Fulani and Hausa population samples are labeled. The x axis represents dimension 1 and the y axis represents dimension 2.

FIGURE 5.4 Multidimensional scaling (MDS) (k = 2) analysis of data from Tishkoff et al. (2009). We included central African populations with a sample of n ≥ 10, constructed a pairwise distance matrix using (δμ)2 (as described in Tishkoff et al., 2009), and the population samples are displayed by linguistic affiliation. The Afroasiatic speakers are shown as open circles, the Nilo-Saharan speakers are shown as triangles, and the Niger-Kordofanian speakers are shown as squares. The Fulani and Hausa population samples are labeled. The x axis represents dimension 1 and the y axis represents dimension 2.

combination of the two. A more recent analysis of genome-wide autosomal data shows that the Fulani, who form a distinct population cluster, show genetic similarities with the Chadic- and Central Sudanic-speaking populations (Tishkoff et al., 2009). This result is consistent with our MDS analysis in which both Fulani cluster most closely with the Chadic- and Central Sudanic-speaking populations, as well as with the Baggara (Semitic). The clustering of the Baggara near the Fulani is also consistent with Tishkoff et al. (2009), who report that the Baggara share ancestry with the Fulani and with the Chadic speakers.

To a lesser extent, the Hausa from Nigeria and Cameroon cluster more closely with the Niger-Kordofanian speakers along dimension 2 (Fig. 5.4). This result is consistent with previous genetic analysis (Tishkoff et al., 2009) and with linguistic analysis of the Hausa that suggests extensive interaction between the Hausa (who speak an Afroasiatic Chadic language) and Niger-Kordofanian speakers as evidenced by an analysis of loanwords (Ehret, 2006).



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