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References ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union). 2007. Increasing Access to Voluntary HIV Testing: The Importance of Informed Consent and Counseling in HIV Testing. http://www.aclu. org/files/images/asset_upload_file473_30248.pdf (accessed July 8, 2010). Aguirre, D., A. Mares-DelGrasso, C. Emerson, J. Tsang, J. Pincus, C. Calhoun, H. Buckendahl, D. Dekker, K. Jafa-Bhushan, K. Bowles, H. Clark, B. Song, P. Sullivan, J. Heffelfinger, J. Cleveland, and E. Tai. 2007. Rapid HIV testing in outreach and other community settings—United States, 2004-2006. MMWR 56(47):1233–1237. AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). 2008. U.S. Preentie Serices Task Force grade Definitions After May 00. http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstf/gradespost. htm (accessed May 4, 2010). Alpert, P. L., J. Shuter, M. G. DeShaw, M. P. Webber, and R. S. Klein. 1996. Factors associated with unrecognized HIV-1 infection in an inner-city emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 28(2):159–164. Anaya, H., T. Hoang, J. Golden, M. Goetz, A. Gifford, C. Bowman, T. Osborn, D. Owens, G. Sanders, and S. Asch. 2008. Improving HIV screening and receipt of results by nurse- initiated streamlined counseling and rapid testing. J gen Intern Med 23(6):800–807. April, M. 2009. The Survival Cost of Opt-in Consent for HIV Testing. Infectious Diseases Society of America Annual Meeting, October 31, Philadelphia, PA. Bayer, R., and C. Edington. 2009. HIV testing, human rights, and global AIDS policy: Excep- tionalism and its discontents. J Health Polit Policy Law 34(3):301–323. Bayer, R., and A. L. Fairchild. 2006. Changing the paradigm for HIV testing—The end of exceptionalism. N Engl J Med 355(7):647–649. Beckwith, C., S. Atunah-Jay, J. Cohen, G. Macalino, M. Poshkus, J. Rich, T. Flanigan, and M. Lally. 2007. Feasibility and acceptability of rapid HIV testing in jail. AIDS Patient Care STDS 21(1):41–47. Bernstein, K. T., K. L. Liu, E. M. Begier, B. Koblin, A. Karpati, and C. Murrill. 2008. Same-sex attraction disclosure to health care providers among New York City men who have sex with men: Implications for HIV testing approaches. Arch Intern Med 168(13):1458–1464. 

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