Box 1:

Waste Forms

The International Atomic Energy Agency defines waste immobilization as the conversion of a waste into a waste form by solidification, embedding, or encapsulation. The waste form can be produced by chemical incorporation of the waste species into the structure of a suitable matrix (typically a glass or ceramic) so that the radioactive species are atomistically bound in the structure. Chemical incorporation is typical for high-level radioactive waste. Encapsulation of waste, on the other hand, is achieved by physically surrounding it in materials (typically bitumen, grout, or cement) so it is isolated and radionuclides are retained. Encapsulation is typically used for low-level or intermediate-level waste and may include some chemical incorporation.


The primary role of a waste form is to immobilize radioactive and/or hazardous constituents in a stable, solid matrix for storage and eventual disposal. In a well-designed disposal system, the waste forms and disposal facility into which they are emplaced work together to sequester radioactive and hazardous constituents. The near-field environment of the disposal site and other engineered barriers, if present, establish the physical and chemical bounds within which the waste form performs its sequestering function. This promotes the maintenance of waste form integrity over extended periods, which helps to slow the release of radioactive and other hazardous constituents from the waste form and the transport of these constituents out of the disposal facility.

In addressing these charges, the committee has focused primarily, but not exclusively, on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) cleanup, which is the longest schedule, highest cost, highest risk, and arguably DOE-EM’s most difficult technical cleanup challenge (see, for example, DOE, 1998, 2010a; NRC, 2001, 2006). At present, tank waste retrieval and closure are limited by schedules for treating and immobilizing HLW in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, which is currently operating at the Savannah River Site; the Waste Treatment Plant, which is under construction at the Hanford Site; and a facility to be designed and constructed at the Idaho Site. Accelerating schedules for treating and immobilizing HLW by introducing new and/or improved waste forms and processing technologies could also accelerate tank waste retrieval and closure schedules.


The committee used its expert judgment to identify the opportunities described in this report. This judgment was informed through a series of briefings, site visits, and a scientific workshop. The committee received briefings on DOE’s current programs and future plans for waste processing, storage, and disposal from DOE-EM, national laboratory, and contractor staff, including information on comparable international programs. The committee visited the Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho Site, Savannah River Site (South Carolina), and their associated national laboratories (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Savannah River National Laboratory, respectively) to observe DOE’s waste processing and waste form production programs and to hold technical discussions with site and laboratory staff. The committee also organized a workshop to discuss scientific advances in waste form development and processing. This workshop, which was held in Washington, D.C., on November 4, 2009, featured presentations from researchers in the United States, Russia, Europe, and Australia. The workshop agenda is provided in Attachment C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement