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Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: Third Report
shops as well as considerable participation in professional society conferences to help keep everyone in the Partnership technical teams well informed. To these teams are added a vehicle systems analysis technical team (VSATT) and a fuel pathway integration technical team (FPITT). This organizational structure is based on project activities that focus on individual technical issues, as well as on total vehicle system integration and the total fuel chain (see Figure 1-1 in Chapter 1). In addition, there is a broader strategic perspective, which the Executive Steering Group (ESG) provides. The system integration and performance issues require a systems analysis approach on several levels, necessitating a variety of systems analysis tools.
In its previous reports, the National Research Council (NRC) recommended substantial activity to develop systems analysis tools to help the Partnership meet its goals. For example, in its first report it was recommended that “an ongoing, integrated, well-to-wheels assessment be made of the Partnership’s progress toward its overall objectives” (NRC, 2005, p. 9). In its second report, the committee recommended that “the DOE should accelerate the development and validation of modeling tools that can be used to assess the roles of various propulsion system and vehicle technologies and fuels, and utilize them to determine the impact of the various opportunities on the overall Partnership goals of reducing petroleum use and air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions” (NRC, 2008, p. 13).
The Partnership has made substantial progress on the development and application of these systems analysis tools. Well-to-wheels analysis (the committee now generally uses the term “source-to-wheels”)1 is now routinely used across the Partnership, and modeling and simulation tools are widely used within the technical teams to support detailed design and analysis as well as target setting. The impact on goals is being assessed by integrating information from various models such as the GHG information from the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model and market interaction information from national energy sector models (MARKAL [Market Analysis] and NEMS [National Energy Modeling System]). The PSAT (Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit) model provides vehicle performance information based on goals and targets. Key program target information for advanced diesel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), PHEVs, and fuel cell vehicles are included in the PSAT vehicle performance modeling. The hydrogen production and delivery targets are assessed with the H2A (Hydrogen Technology) Production and Delivery models. The MARKAL and NEMS models are used to perform sensitivity analyses of the impacts of meeting or not meeting various targets on the market
The committee chose to use the term “source-to-wheels” instead of “well-to-wheels.” In conducting full-fuel-cycle analysis for petroleum-based fuels, the literature has used “well-to-wheels,” since petroleum comes from oil wells. However, since transportation energy may now derive from a diverse set of sources, such as solar energy conversion to biomass or coal conversion to electricity, it is more accurate to consider the source of the energy.