REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE FreedomCAR AND Fuel Partnership

THIRD REPORT

Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 3

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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REVIEW O F T HE RESEARCH P ROGRAM O F T HE FreedomCAR A ND Fuel Partnership THIRD REPORT Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 3 Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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The NaTioNal academies Press 500 Fifth st., N.W. Washington, dc 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. DE-AC26-08NT06206 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15683-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15683-1 Copies of this report are available in limited supply free of charge from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck 943, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3344 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National academy of sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National academy of engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The institute of medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina - tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National research council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s pur- poses of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accor- dance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the princi- pal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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commiTTee oN reVieW oF The Freedomcar aNd FUel research ProGram, Phase 3 VERNON P. ROAN, Chair, University of Florida (professor emeritus), Gainesville DEBORAH LYNN BLEVISS, Independent Consultant, Falls Church, Virginia DAVID L. BODDE, Clemson University, South Carolina KATHRYN BULLOCK, Coolohm, Inc., Blue Bell, Pennsylvania HARRY E. COOK, NAE,1 University of Illinois (professor emeritus) GLENN A. EISMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York W. ROBERT EPPERLY, Consultant, Mountain View, California WILLIAM D. ERNST, EnerSysCon, Troy, New York DAVID E. FOSTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison GERALD GABRIELSE, NAS,2 Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts LINOS JACOVIDES, Delphi Research Labs (retired), Grosse Pointe, Michigan HAROLD H. KUNG, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CRAIG MARKS, NAE,3 Altarum, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan GENE NEMANICH, Chevron Hydrogen Systems (retired), Scottsdale, Arizona BERNARD ROBERTSON, NAE, DaimlerChrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan R. RHOADS STEPHENSON, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (retired), Consultant, La Cañada, California KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation (retired), Falmouth, Massachusetts BRIJESH VYAS, LGS Bell Labs Innovations, Florham Park, New Jersey ERIC WILLIAMS, Arizona State University, Tempe 1 National Academy of Engineering. 2 National Academy of Sciences. 3 Deceased. 

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subgroup on systems analysis and simulation Bernard Robertson, Lead David L. Bodde Harry E. Cook David E. Foster Harold H. Kung Christopher L. Magee Eric Williams subgroup on advanced combustion engines and emissions control David E. Foster, Lead Deborah Lynn Bleviss Harold H. Kung Bernard Robertson Kathleen C. Taylor subgroup on electrochemical energy storage Brijesh Vyas, Lead Kathryn Bullock Gerald Gabrielse Linos Jacovides Christopher L. Magee subgroup on Fuel cells Glenn A. Eisman, Lead William D. Ernst Gene Nemanich Kathleen C. Taylor Brijesh Vyas subgroup on electric Propulsion, electrical ystems and Power electronics Linos Jacovides, Lead Kathryn Bullock Harry E. Cook William D. Ernst Brijesh Vyas i

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subgroup on materials and supplier issues Harry E. Cook, Lead Deborah Lynn Bleviss Glenn A. Eisman W. Robert Epperly Christopher L. Magee subgroup on hydrogen Production and delivery (including off-Board storage) W. Robert Epperly, Lead David L. Bodde Glenn A. Eisman Harold H. Kung Gene Nemanich R. Rhoads Stephenson Eric Williams subgroup on onboard hydrogen storage Kathleen C. Taylor, Lead William D. Ernst Gene Nemanich Christopher L. Magee R. Rhoads Stephenson subgroup on safety R. Rhoads Stephenson, Lead David L. Bodde Harry E. Cook W. Robert Epperly Christopher L. Magee subgroup on Biofuels Gene Nemanich, Lead Deborah Lynn Bleviss David L. Bodde David E. Foster Gerald Gabrielse Gene Nemanich Eric Williams ii

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subgroup on electric Grid/Vehicle charging issues David Bodde and Kathryn Bullock, Leads Linos Jacovides Brijesh Vyas Project Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems LaNITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator DANA CAINES, Financial Associate iii

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Board oN eNerGY aNd eNViroNmeNTal sYsTems DOUGLAS M. CHAPIN, Chair, NAE,1 MPR Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia RAKESH AGRAWAL, NAE, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana WILLIAM F. BANHOLZER, NAE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan ANDREW BROWN, JR., NAE, Delphi Corporation, Troy, Michigan MARILYN BROWN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MICHAEL L. CORRADINI, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison PAUL DeCOTIS, Long Island Power Authority, Albany, New York E. LINN DRAPER, JR., NAE, American Electric Power, Inc. (emeritus), Austin, Texas CHRISTINE EHLIG-ECONOMIDES, NAE, Texas A&M University, College Station WILLIAM FRIEND, NAE, Bechtel Group, Inc. (retired), McLean, Virginia SHERRI GOODMAN, CNA, Alexandria, Virginia NARAIN HINGORANI, NAE, Consultant, Los Altos Hills, California DANIEL NOCERA, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER, Princeton University, New Jersey MICHAEL P. RAMAGE, NAE, ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company (retired), Moorestown, New Jersey DAN REICHER, Google, Inc., Warren, Vermont BERNARD ROBERTSON, NAE, DaimlerChrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan MAXINE SAVITZ, NAE, Honeywell, Inc. (retired), Los Angeles, California MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS,2 University of California, San Diego RICHARD WHITE, Oppenheimer & Company, New York City Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director DUNCAN BROWN, Senior Program Officer (until June 2010) DANA CAINES, Financial Associate ALAN CRANE, Senior Program Officer JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer LaNITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator MADELINE WOODRUFF, Senior Program Officer JONATHAN YANGER, Senior Project Assistant 1National Academy of Engineering. 2National Academy of Sciences. ix

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Preface The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership has undergone several changes since its formation in January 2002. Initially, the Partnership was between the U.S. government (primarily the U.S. Department of Energy [DOE]) and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), whose members are Chrysler LLC, the Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Company. Soon after its inception, in September 2003 five energy companies were added as members: BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Hydro- gen (U.S.). More recently, in 2008, two major power companies, DTE Energy (Detroit) and Southern California Edison, were added as members. The Partnership developed a roadmap including many individual milestones and technical targets to pursue the original goal of “a full spectrum of vehicles that can operate free of petroleum and harmful emissions while sustaining the driving public’s freedom of mobility and freedom of vehicle choice.”1 The long- term emphasis was on hydrogen fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen as the primary transportation fuel, but the Partnership envisioned utilizing transition technologies of advanced internal combustion engine vehicles and advanced hybrid electric vehicles en route to hydrogen/fuel cell vehicles. With the change from the Bush to the Obama administration, there was an increase in emphasis on nearer-term technologies, especially those involving more electrification of the vehicles, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. However, the charge to the Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, as well as presentations to the committee, involved performing an evaluation of activities between Phases 2 and 3, which included few activities 1 See http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/mypp/pdfs/introduction.pd f. xi

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xii PREFACE involving all-electric (battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle) technologies, or biofuels. This report is the final full report, following a shorter letter report issued in July 2009,2 for Phase 3 of the study of the Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program as chartered by the National Research Council in the fall of 2008. It provides an overview of the structure and manage - ment of the Partnership as well as a discussion of the Partnership’s adequacy, progress, and technical problem areas. Recommendations are also included in areas where the committee believes that improvements can be made. Vernon P. Roan, Chair Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program 2 See Appendix B in this report.

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Acknowledgments The committee wishes to thank the members of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, all of whom contributed a significant amount of their time and effort to this National Research Council (NRC) study by giving presentations at meet - ings, responding to requests for information, or providing valuable information. The chair also recognizes the committee members and the staff of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems for their hard work in organizing and plan - ning committee meetings and their individual efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this inde- pendent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsive - ness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Paul Blumberg, NAE, Independent Consultant, and Ford Motor Company (retired), Jay Hakes, Director, Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and Museum, Trevor Jones, NAE, ElectroSonics Medical, Inc., Fritz Kalhammer, Electric Power Research Institute (retired), John Kassakian, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Jerome Milgram, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, xiii

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xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS John Scott Newman, NAE, University of California, Berkeley, William F. Powers, NAE, Ford Motor Company (retired), Michael P. Ramage, NAE, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company (retired), Daniel Sperling, University of California, Davis, and Richard Teets, Delphi Research Laboratories (retired). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or rec- ommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Stephen Berry, NAS, University of Chicago. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were care - fully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 15 Background, 15 Committee’s Interim Letter Report, 19 Goals and Targets, 20 Organization of the Partnership, 21 Recent Initiatives, 23 Vehicles and Fuels, 26 Committee Approach and Organization of This Report, 29 References, 30 2 CROSSCUTTING ISSUES 33 Program Decision Making, 33 Safety, 36 Balance Between Short-Term and Long-Term Activities, 43 Battery Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the U.S. Electric Grid, 44 Persisting Trends in Automotive Innovation: Implications for the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, 50 Environmental Impacts of Alternative Pathways, 52 References, 55 x

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xi CONTENTS 3 VEHICLE SUBSYSTEMS 57 Advanced Combustion, Emissions Control, and Hydrocarbon Fuels, 58 Fuel Cell Subsystem, 65 Onboard Hydrogen Storage, 72 Electrochemical Energy Storage, 85 Electric Propulsion and Electrical Systems, 93 Structural Materials, 105 References, 109 Annex, 111 4 HYDROGEN AND BIOFUELS 115 Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Dispensing, 115 Hydrogen Fuel Pathways, 116 Hydrogen Production, 118 Hydrogen Delivery, Dispensing, and Transition Supply, 128 Biofuels for Internal Combustion Engines, 130 References, 132 5 OVERALL ASSESSMENT 135 Major Achievements and Technical Barriers, 135 Adequacy and Balance of the Partnership,145 Concluding Comments, 152 References, 153 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 157 B Committee’s Interim Letter Report 167 C Organizational Chart 191 D Recommendations from National Research Council Review of the 193 FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 2 E Committee Meetings and Presentations 201 F Acronyms and Abbreviations 205

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Tables, Figures, and Boxes TaBles 2-1 DOE Safety, Codes, and Standards Funding from FY 2006 Through FY 2010, 37 3-1 Selected Fuel Cell Stack Targets and Progress, 67 3-2 Centers of Excellence (COEs) Project Focus and Participating Organizations, 74 3-3 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Budget Appropriations for Hydrogen Storage, FY 2007 through FY 2010, 76 3-4 Target Characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries for 2010, 88 3-5 Target Characteristics for 2012 and 2014 for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries, 89 3A-1 Technical System Targets: Onboard Hydrogen Storage for Light-Duty Vehicles, 111 4-1 DOE Cost Status and Targets for Distributed Hydrogen Generation from Water Electrolysis, 2006, 2012, 2017, 125 4-2 Cost Targets for Hydrogen Delivery and Dispensing, 129 5-1 Fuel Cell Technology and Related DOE Hydrogen Funding, FY 2009 and FY 2010, 147 xii

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xiii TAbLES, FiGuRES, AND bOXES 5-2 Vehicle Technologies Program Funding, FY 2009 Appropriation and FY 2010 Estimate, 149 5-3 Estimate of DOE’s Congressional Budget Request for FY 2011 FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Activities, 151 FiGUres 1-1 FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership organizational structure, 18 2-1 DOE safety, codes, and standards budget allocation, FY 2009 and FY 2010, 37 3-1 DOE advanced combustion engine research and development funding, FY 2009, 63 3-2 Fuel cell budget, FY 2007 through FY 2009, 66 3-3 Structure of the National Hydrogen Storage Project, 75 3-4 Current hydrogen storage system status versus revised targets, 79 3-5 Hybrid vehicle traction drive performance targets, 95 3-6 Schematic of parallel drive configuration for a hybrid vehicle, 95 3-7 Schematic of series drive configuration for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, 95 3-8 Schematic of series drive configuration, typical fuel cell vehicle configurations, 96 3-9 Schematic of series drive configuration, battery electric vehicle, 96 3-10 Schematic of typical power-split hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrain configuration, 97 5-1 Distribution of funding from the Hydrogen Program for FY 2009, 148 5-2 Distribution of funding from the Vehicle Technologies program for FY 2009, 150 C-1 Organizational chart for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 192 BoXes 3-1 Fiscal Year 2009 Participating Organizations: Independent Projects in Hydrogen Storage, 75 3-2 Current Candidate Hydrogen Storage Materials Under Investigation, 80

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dedicaTioN This report is dedicated to our dear friend and colleague Dr. Craig Marks (1929-2009), who served on all three National Research Council (NRC) committee reviews of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, chairing the first two. Craig devoted most of his working career to advancing automotive technologies and generously volunteered his considerable knowledge and skills to work not only with this committee but also with all seven phases of its predecessor, the NRC committee that reviewed the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. His many contributions, friendly manner, and thoughtful insights will be greatly missed.

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