Appendix C
HIV Background Tables

This appendix includes information about HIV/AIDS to support discussion in Chapter 2. Table C-1 lists the AIDS-defining illnesses as determined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as a noninclusive list of contemporary, serious non-AIDS-defining illnesses. Table C-2 provides a nonexhaustive list of HIV/AIDS antiretroviral drugs and their potential side effects.



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Appendix C HIV Background Tables This appendix includes information about HIV/AIDS to support discus- sion in Chapter 2. Table C-1 lists the AIDS-defining illnesses as determined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as a noninclu- sive list of contemporary, serious non-AIDS-defining illnesses. Table C-2 provides a nonexhaustive list of HIV/AIDS antiretroviral drugs and their potential side effects. 

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 HIV AND DISABILITY TABLE C-1 HIV/AIDS-Related Illnesses and Malignancies AIDS-Defining Illnessesa Serious Non-AIDS-Defining Illnessesb • Cancers • Avascular necrosis - Cervical (invasive) • Cardiovascular disease - Kaposi’s sarcoma • Cholangiopathy - Lymphoma (Burkitt’s or equivalent, • Diabetes immunoblastic, or primary central • Gingivitis/periodontitis nervous system) • Hepatic cirrhosis • Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, lungs, • HIV-associated nephropathy oresophagus • Mental disorders • Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or - Anxiety extrapulmonary - Bipolar disorder • Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary - Depression • Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal > 1 • Neutropenia month • Non-AIDS malignancies • Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, - Cancer of the anus spleen, or nodes) - Cancer of the larynx • Encephalopathy, HIV-related - Cancer of the mouth or pharynx • Herpes simplex (chronic ulcers > 1 month, - Cancer of the penis bronchitis, pneumonia, or esophagitis) - Hodgkin’s lymphoma • Histoplasmosis, extrapulmonary - Liver cancer • Isosporiasis > 1 month - Lung cancer • Mycobacterium aium complex or - Sinonasal malignancies Mycobacterium kansasii, disseminated or • Osteoporosis extrapulmonary • Peripheral neuropathy • Mycobacterium tuberculosis, any site • Sinusitis (pulmonary or extrapulmonary) • Thromboembolic disease • Pneumocystis jiroecii pneumonia • Pneumonia (recurrent) • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy • Salmonella septicemia (recurrent) • Toxoplasmosis of the brain • Wasting syndrome aCDC AIDS-defining illnesses (CDC, 1994). bSee http://www.hopkins-hivguide.org/r.html?RequestingPage=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. hopkins-hivguide.org%2Fdiagnosis%2Findex.html&navigationId=8231&siteId=7151#8231.

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 APPENDIX C TABLE C-2 Current HIV/AIDS Antiretroviral Drugs Brand Approval Generic Name Name Date Potential Side Effects Multiclass Combination Products Efavirenz, Atripla July 12, • Hepatic steatosis +/– pancreatitis (severe emtricitabine, and 2006 mitochondrial toxicities) tenofovir disoproxil • Hepatotoxicity fumarate • Hyperlipidemia • Hyperpigmentation/skin discoloration • Lactic acidosis/Lipodystrophy • Nephrotoxicity • Osteopenia • Pancreatitis • Peripheral neuropathy Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) Abacavir and Epzicom August 2, • Hypersensitivity reaction lamivudine 2004 Abacavir, Trizivir November • Cardiovascular effects zidovudine, and 14, 2000 • Hyperlipidemia lamivudine • Hypersensitivity reaction • Lactic acidosis/hepatic steatosis +/– pancreatitis (severe mitochondrial toxicities) • Lipodystrophy • Stevens-Johnson syndrome • Toxic epidermal necrosis Abacavir sulfate, Ziagen December • Hypersensitivity reaction ABC 17, 1998 • Lipoatrophy • Myocardial infarctions Didanosine, Videx October • Lactic acidosis dideoxyinosine, ddI 9, 1991 • Pancreatitis • Peripheral neuropathy Emtricitabine, FTC Emtriva July 2, • Lactic acidosis 2003 • Lipoatrophy Enteric-coated Videx EC October • Cardiovascular disease didanosine, ddI EC 31, 2000 • Gastrointestinal intolerance • Hepatotoxicity • Hepatic steatosis +/– pancreatitis (severe mitochondrial toxicities) • Pancreatitis • Peripheral neuropathy • Stevens-Johnson syndrome • Toxic epidermal necrosis continued

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0 HIV AND DISABILITY TABLE C-2 Continued Brand Approval Generic Name Name Date Potential Side Effects Lamivudine and Combivir September • Hepatic steatosis +/– pancreatitis (severe zidovudine 27, 1997 mitochondrial toxicities) • Hepatotoxicity • Lactic acidosis • Lipodystrophy Lamivudine, 3TC Epivir November • Lipoatrophy 17, 1995 Stavudine, d4T Zerit June 24, • Insulin resistance 1994 • Lactic acidosis • Lipoatrophy • Lipohypertrophy • Neuromuscular weakness syndrome • Osteopenia • Peripheral neuropathy Tenofovir Truvada August 2, • Hepatotoxicity disoproxil fumarate 2004 • Hyperlipidemia and emtricitabine • Hepatic steatosis +/– pancreatitis (severe mitochondrial toxicities) • Lipodystrophy • Nephrotoxicity • Osteopenia • Pancreatitis • Peripheral neuropathy Tenofovir Viread October • Lipoatrophy disoproxil fumarate, 26, 2001 • Nephrotoxicity TDF • Osteopenia • Pancreatitis Zalcitabine, Hivid June 19, • Unknown dideoxycytidine, 1992 ddC (no longer marketed) Zidovudine, Retrovir March 19, • Bone marrow suppression azidothymidine, 1987 • Gastrointestinal intolerance AZT, ZDV • Hepatotoxicity • Hyperlipidemia • Insulin resistance/diabetes mellitus • Lactic acidosis/hepatic steatosis +/– pancreatitis (severe mitochondrial toxicities), lipodystrophy • Stevens-Johnson syndrome • Toxic epidermal necrosis

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 APPENDIX C TABLE C-2 Continued Brand Approval Generic Name Name Date Potential Side Effects Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) Delavirdine, DLV Rescriptor April 4, • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome 1997 • Toxic epidermal necrosis Efavirenz, EFV Sustiva September • Birth defects (avoid in pregnant women) 17, 1998 • Neuropsychiatric side effects • Short-term central nervous system toxicity Etravirine Intelence January • High blood pressure 18, 2008 Nevirapine, NVP Viramune June 27, • Hypersensitivity with hepatic failure 1996 Protease Inhibitors (PIs) Amprenavir, APV Agenerase April 15, • Stevens-Johnson syndrome 1999 • Toxic epidermal necrosis Atazanavir sulfate, Reyataz June 20, • Jaundice ATV 2003 • Kidney stones Darunavir Prezista June 23, • Hepatotoxicity 2006 Fosamprenavir Lexiva October • Cholesteremia calcium, FOS-APV 20, 2003 Indinavir, IDV Crixivan March 13, • Kidney stones 1996 • Nephrotoxicity Lopinavir and Kaletra September • Cardiovascular risk ritonavir, LPV/RTV 15, 2000 Nelfinavir mesylate, Viracept March 14, • Diarrhea NFV 1997 Ritonavir, RTV Norvir March 1, • Pancreatitis 1996 Saquinavir (no Fortovase November • N/A longer marketed) 7, 1997 Saquinavir Invirase December • Many drug interactions mesylate, SQV 6, 1995 Tipranavir, TPV Aptivus June 22, • Cardiovascular risk 2005 continued

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 HIV AND DISABILITY TABLE C-2 Continued Brand Approval Generic Name Name Date Potential Side Effects Fusion Inhibitors Enfuvirtide, T-20 Fuzeon March 13, • Poorly tolerated (painful local 2003 subcutaneous reactions when injected) Entry Inhibitors—CCR5 Coreceptor Antagonist Maraviroc Selzentry August 6, • Unknown 2007 HIV Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors Raltegravir Isentress October • Unknown 12, 2007 REFERENCE CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1994. Revised classification system for HIV-infection in children less than 13 years of age. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 43:1–10.