Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration

An Interim Report

Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space Space Studies Board

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration An Interim Report Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space Space Studies Board Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH06CE15B between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15712-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15712-9 Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.nationalacademies.org

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Other Recent Reports of the Space Studies Board and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Final Report (Space Studies Board [SSB] with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2010) An Enabling Foundation for NASA's Space and Earth Science Missions (SSB, 2010) Revitalizing NASA's Suborbital Program: Advancing Science, Driving Innovation, and Developing a Workforce (SSB, 2010) America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs (SSB with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2009) Approaches to Future Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2009) Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions (SSB, 2009) Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (ASEB, 2009) Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2009) A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Heliophysics Program (SSB, 2009) Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2009) Assessing the Research and Development Plan for the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Summary of a Workshop (ASEB, 2008) A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program (ASEB, 2008) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (SSB, 2008) Final Report of the Committee for the Review of Proposals to the 2008 Engineering Research and Commercialization Program of the Ohio Third Frontier Program (ASEB, 2008) Final Report of the Committee to Review Proposals to the 2008 Ohio Research Scholars Program of the State of Ohio (ASEB, 2008) Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration (ASEB, 2008) NASA Aeronautics Research: An Assessment (ASEB, 2008) Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (SSB, 2008) Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program: An Interim Report (ASEB, 2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Severe Space Weather Events⎯Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (SSB, 2008) Space Science and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Summary of a Workshop (SSB, 2008) United States Civil Space Policy: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Wake Turbulence: An Obstacle to Increased Air Traffic Capacity (ASEB, 2008) Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (SSB, 2007) An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars (SSB with the Board on Life Sciences [BLS], 2007) Building a Better NASA Workforce: Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2007) Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop (SSB, 2007) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (SSB, 2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (SSB with the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, 2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (SSB, 2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (SSB with BLS, 2007) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation (SSB with the Board on Physics and Astronomy [BPA], 2007) Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (SSB, 2007) A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Astrophysics Program (SSB with BPA, 2007) Portals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy Science Centers (SSB, 2007) The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SSB, 2007) Limited copies of SSB reports are available free of charge from Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3477/ssb@nas.edu www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html iv

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COMMITTEE FOR THE DECADAL SURVEY ON BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN SPACE ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Co-chair WENDY M. KOHRT, University of Colorado, Denver, Co-chair LARS BERGLUND, University of California, Davis NICHOLAS P. BIGELOW, University of Rochester LEONARD H. CAVENY, Independent Consultant, Ft. Washington, Maryland VIJAY K. DHIR, University of California, Los Angeles JOEL E. DIMSDALE, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine NIKOLAOS A. GATSONIS, Worcester Polytechnic Institute SIMON GILROY, University of Wisconsin-Madison BENJAMIN D. LEVINE, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas RODOLFO R. LLINAS,1 New York University Medical Center KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University PHILIPPA MARRACK,2 National Jewish Health GABOR A. SOMORJAI, University of California, Berkeley CHARLES M. TIPTON, University of Arizona JOSE L. TORERO, University of Edinburgh ROBERT WEGENG, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine ANIMAL AND HUMAN BIOLOGY PANEL KENNETH M. BALDWIN, University of California, Irvine, Chair FRANÇOIS M. ABBOUD, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine PETER R. CAVANAGH, University of Washington V. REGGIE EDGERTON, University of California, Los Angeles DONNA MURASKO, Drexel University JOHN T. POTTS, JR., Massachusetts General Hospital APRIL E. RONCA, Wake Forest University School of Medicine CHARLES M. TIPTON, University of Arizona CHARLES H. TURNER, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis JOHN B. WEST, University of California, San Diego APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES PANEL PETER W. VOORHEES, Northwestern University, Chair NIKOLAOS A. GATSONIS, Worcester Polytechnic Institute RICHARD T. LAHEY, JR., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute RICHARD M. LUEPTOW, Northwestern University JOHN J. MOORE, Colorado School of Mines ELAINE S. ORAN, Naval Research Laboratory AMY L. RECHENMACHER, University of Southern California JAMES S. T’IEN, Case Western Reserve University MARK M. WEISLOGEL, Portland State University 1 Through mid-December 2009. 2 Through mid-May 2010. v

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FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL SCIENCES PANEL ROBERT V. DUNCAN, University of Missouri, Chair NICHOLAS P. BIGELOW, University of Rochester PAUL M. CHAIKIN, New York University RONALD G. LARSON, University of Michigan W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Boulder RONALD WALSWORTH, Harvard University and Smithsonian Institution HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH PANEL THOMAS J. BALKIN, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Chair JOEL E. DIMSDALE, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine NICK KANAS, University of California, San Francisco GLORIA LEON, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis LAWRENCE A. PALINKAS, University of Southern California MRIGANKA SUR,1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology INTEGRATIVE AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH FOR HUMAN SYSTEMS PANEL JAMES A. PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University, Chair ALAN R. HARGENS, University of California, San Diego ROBERT L. HELMREICH, University of Texas, Austin (retired) JOANNE R. LUPTON, Texas A&M University, College Station CHARLES M. OMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID ROBERTSON, Vanderbilt University SUZANNE M. SCHNEIDER, University of New Mexico GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine PLANT AND MICROBIAL BIOLOGY PANEL TERRI L. LOMAX, North Carolina State University, Chair PAUL BLOUNT, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas ROBERT J. FERL, University of Florida SIMON GILROY, University of Wisconsin-Madison E. PETER GREENBERG, University of Washington School of Medicine 1 Through mid-December 2009. vi

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TRANSLATION TO SPACE EXPLORATION SYSTEMS PANEL JAMES P. BAGIAN, United States Air Force, Chair FREDERICK R. BEST, Texas A&M University, College Station DAVID C. BYERS,1 Independent Consultant, Torrance, California LEONARD H. CAVENY, Independent Consultant, Ft. Washington, Maryland MICHAEL B. DUKE, Colorado School of Mines (retired) JOHN P. KIZITO, North Carolina A&T State University DAVID Y. KUSNIERKIEWICZ, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory E. THOMAS MAHEFKEY, JR., Heat Transfer Technology Consultants DAVA J. NEWMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RICHARD J. ROBY, Combustion Science and Engineering, Inc. GUILLERMO TROTTI, Trotti and Associates, Inc. ALAN WILHITE, Georgia Institute of Technology STAFF SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board, Study Director ALAN C. ANGLEMAN, Senior Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board IAN W. PRYKE, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board ROBERT L. RIEMER,2 Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy MAUREEN MELLODY, Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board REGINA NORTH, Consultant CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor, Space Studies Board LEWIS GROSWALD, Research Associate, Space Studies Board DANIELLE JOHNSON-BLAND,1 Senior Program Assistant, Committee on Law and Justice LAURA TOTH,1 Senior Program Assistant, National Materials Advisory Board LINDA M. WALKER, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ERIC WHITTAKER,1 Senior Program Assistant, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board 1 Through mid-December 2009. 2 Staff from other NRC boards who are assisting with the survey. vii

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SPACE STUDIES BOARD CHARLES F. KENNEL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Chair A. THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Vice Chair DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering CHARLES L. BENNETT, Johns Hopkins University YVONNE C. BRILL, Aerospace Consultant ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory ANDREW B. CHRISTENSEN, Dixie State College and Aerospace Corporation ALAN DRESSLER, The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution JACK D. FELLOWS, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE, Naval War College KLAUS KEIL, University of Hawaii MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology JAMES PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN, University of California, Irvine JOAN VERNIKOS, Thirdage LLC JOSEPH F. VEVERKA, Cornell University WARREN M. WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research CHARLES E. WOODWARD, University of Minnesota ELLEN G. ZWEIBEL, University of Wisconsin MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director (from April 1, 2010) RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Interim Director (from March 2, 2009, to March 31, 2010) MARCIA S. SMITH, Director (until March 1, 2009) CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant viii

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AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired), Chair KYLE T. ALFRIEND, Texas A&M University AMY L. BUHRIG, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group PIERRE CHAO, Center for Strategic and International Studies INDERJIT CHOPRA, University of Maryland, College Park JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, Georgia Institute of Technology RAVI B. DEO, Northrop Grumman Corporation (retired) MICA R. ENDSLEY, SA Technologies DAVID GOLDSTON, Harvard University R. JOHN HANSMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN B. HAYHURST, Boeing Company (retired) PRESTON HENNE, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation RICHARD KOHRS, Independent Consultant IVETT LEYVA, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base ELAINE S. ORAN, Naval Research Laboratory ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University EDMOND SOLIDAY, United Airlines (retired) MICHAEL H. MALONEY, Director (from April 1, 2010) RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Interim Director (from March 2, 2009, to March 31, 2010) MARCIA S. SMITH, Director (until March 1, 2009) CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant ix

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Preface In response to requests from Congress, NASA asked the National Research Council to undertake a decadal survey of life and physical sciences in microgravity. Developed in consultation with members of the life and physical sciences communities, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for research for the next decade that will allow the use of the space environment to solve complex problems in life and physical sciences so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as we become a spacefaring people. The decadal survey will define research areas, recommend a research portfolio and a timeline for conducting that research, identify facility and platform requirements as appropriate, provide rationales for suggested program elements, define dependencies between research objectives, identify terrestrial benefits, and specify whether the research product directly enables exploration or produces fundamental new knowledge. The areas will be categorized as either those that are required to enable exploration missions or those that are enabled or facilitated because of exploration missions. The complete statement of task for the study is given in the appendix to this report. Among the key tasks in the charge to the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space are the requests to: • Define research areas that enable exploration missions or that are enabled by exploration missions; • For each of the two categories above, define and prioritize an integrated life and physical sciences research portfolio and associated objectives; • Develop a timeline for the next decade for these research objectives and identify dependencies between the objectives; and • Identify terrestrial, airborne, and space-based platforms and facilities that could most effectively achieve the objectives. The committee’s final report, expected to be published in early 2011, will address these tasks as well as the others described in the appendix. Like this interim report, the final report will draw on the work of seven study panels organized according to the following themes to address all of the elements of the statement of task: Animal and Human Biology, Applied Physical Sciences, Fundamental Physical Sciences, Human Behavior and Mental Health, Integrative and Translational Research for Human Systems, Plant and Microbial Biology, and Translation to Space Exploration Systems. In addition to the expertise represented by the panels, broad community input has been provided to the study in the form of town hall meetings held in conjunction with professional society meetings, approximately 150 white papers submitted by individuals and teams from the community, and numerous briefings and direct exchanges. The purpose of this brief interim report, as requested in spring 2010 by the sponsors of the study, is to provide an early indication of near-term issues that may require attention before the committee’s recommendations are published in its final report. Although the development of specific recommendations is deferred until the final report, this interim report does attempt to identify near-term programmatic needs and issues that are critical to strengthening the organization and management of the life and physical sciences research enterprise at NASA. It also identifies a number of broad topics that represent near-term opportunities for research on the International Space Station. These areas, along with research more suited to other platforms, including ground-based research, will be examined in greater detail in the final report. The interim report represents a preliminary examination of these issues and topics. xi

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard H. Kohrs, NASA (retired), David E. Longnecker, Association of American Medical Colleges, Elliot M. Meyerowitz, California Institute of Technology, Mary Jane Osborn, University of Connecticut Health Center, Simon Ostrach, Florida A&M University-Florida State University, George W. Swenson, Jr., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (professor emeritus), and A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views presented, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University. Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. xii

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Contents EXECUTVE SUMMARY 1 1 RATIONALE AND BASIC ISSUES 3 2 PROGRAMMATIC ISSUES 8 Programmatic Issues for Strengthening the Research Enterprise, 9 Administrative Oversight of Life and Physical Sciences Research, 18 3 RESEARCH ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION 19 Plant and Microbial Research, 20 Behavior and Mental Health Research, 22 Human and Animal Biology, 23 Fundamental Physical Science, 25 Applied Physical Sciences and Translational Research, 27 APPENDIX: Statement of Task 31 xiii

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