a member of the foundation’s ICARUS Committee, a group of worldwide aviation experts who gather informally to share ideas on reducing human error in the cockpit. He has specialized in international aviation safety issues and has spoken extensively on this subject. Mr. Francis is a recipient of an Aviation Week and Space Technology 1996 Laurels Award and was recognized by both the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard for meritorious service in the TWA Flight 800 investigation. He received his A.B. from Williams College.

ELLA M. ATKINS is associate professor of aeronautical engineering, University of Michigan. Her research focuses on the integration of strategic and tactical planning and optimization algorithms to enable robust, autonomous aircraft and spacecraft flight in the presence of system failures and environmental uncertainties. Before joining the faculty of the University of Michigan, she was assistant professor of aerospace engineering at the University of Maryland. She is author of more than 60 archival and conference publications and serves as an associate editor for the AIAA Journal of Aerospace Computing, Information, and Communication. She is a technical program chair for the AIAA Infotech@Aerospace conference and has served on several review boards and panels. She is chair-elect of the AIAA Intelligent Systems Technical Committee, an associate fellow of AIAA, a member of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and a private pilot. She earned her B.S., M.S, and Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and an M.S. and Ph.D. in computer science and engineering from the University of Michigan. She has served on the NRC’s Panel E: Intelligent and Autonomous Systems, Operations and Decision Making, Human Integrated Systems, Networking, and Communications.

DEBORAH A. BOEHM-DAVIS is university professor and chair of the psychology department at George Mason University. She worked on applied cognitive research at General Electric, NASA Ames Research Center, and Bell Laboratories prior to joining George Mason University in 1984. She is also the recipient of a Medical Devices Fellowship Program award that allowed her to serve as a senior policy advisor for human factors at the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Her research interests include the analysis of pilot procedures and practices for automated flight decks. She has served as president of Division 21 (Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA) and as president and secretary-treasurer of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES). She is an associate editor for Human Factors and the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, and she serves on the editorial board of Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Sciences. In 2003, she received the Franklin V. Taylor Award from Division 21 of the American Psychological Association. She is a fellow of the APA, the HFES, and the International Ergonomics Association. She holds an A.B. in psychology from Rutgers the State University (Douglass College) and an M.A. and Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Boehm-Davis is currently a member of the NRC Committee on Human-Systems Integration.

JAMES BURIN is director of technical programs at the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF), an independent, nonprofit organization engaged in research, education, and advocacy to improve aviation safety. As director, Mr. Burin organizes and oversees safety committees and manages safety-related conferences and research. Prior to joining the FSF, he was the director of the School of Aviation Safety, Monterey, California. He has 40 years of aviation experience and 32 years of experience in the field of aviation safety. He is a retired Navy captain, having commanded an attack squadron and carrier air wing during his 30-year military career. His work on aviation safety includes controlled flight into terrain, human factors, safety program organization, accident investigation, operations, education, and organizational and leadership influences on safety. He earned a B.A. from Dartmouth College and an M.S. in systems analysis from the Naval Postgraduate School.

COLIN G. DRURY is distinguished professor emeritus and chair of industrial engineering of the State of University of New York at Buffalo, concentrating on the application of human factors techniques to manufacturing and maintenance processes. He was manager of ergonomics at Pilkington Glass. He has published extensively on topics in industrial process control, quality control, aviation maintenance, and safety and was the North American editor of Applied Ergonomics. From 1988 to 1993, he was the founding executive director of the Center for Industrial

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