Index

2 Micron All Sky Survey, 143, 145, 146 n.10

A

AAG (see Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants Program)

Access to Large Telescopes for Astronomical Instruction and Research Committee, 88, 176, 177

ACTA (see Atmospheric Ęerenkov Telescope Array)

Adaptive optics, 5, 23, 25, 38, 88, 111, 145, 151, 158, 165, 170, 171, 172, 177, 194, 196, 201, 202, 227, 228, 230, 231, 236, 263

Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System, 24-25, 97, 233, 251

Advanced LIGO, 18, 39, 66, 75, 76, 98, 99

Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation program, 5, 25, 92, 146, 151, 152, 157-158, 171, 176, 226, 236, 239

recommended augmentation, 5, 236

Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, 34, 64, 147, 171, 172, 181, 182, 188, 202, 203, 231, 240, 263

AGIS (see Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System)

Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 180

Allen Telescope Array, 92, 93, 96, 169, 251

ALMA (see Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array)

ALTAIR (see Access to Large Telescopes for Astronomical Instruction and Research)

American Astronomical Society (AAS), 30, 104, 112, 116-117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 128, 129 n.22, 186

American Physical Society, 30, 116, 120, 125

Antarctica, 81, 99-100, 217

Apache Point Observatory, 89, 165

ARCADE (Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission), 222

Arecibo, 85, 93, 169, 180, 262

ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth), 16

Arizona Radio Observatory, 93

ASPERA (Astroparticle ERAnet), 86

ASTRONET study, 83, 86, 96

Astronomers and astrophysicists

AAS membership, 117-118, 121

amateur, 103, 107

contributions of, 4

demography, 116-124

engagement in education, 111-112



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Index 2 Micron All Sky Survey, 143, 145, 146 n.10 Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 180 Allen Telescope Array, 92, 93, 96, 169, 251 ALMA (see Atacama Large Millimeter/ A submillimeter Array) ALTAIR (see Access to Large Telescopes for AAG (see Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Astronomical Instruction and Research) Grants Program) American Astronomical Society (AAS), 30, 104, Access to Large Telescopes for Astronomical 112, 116-117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 125, Instruction and Research Committee, 88, 126, 128, 129 n.22, 186 176, 177 American Physical Society, 30, 116, 120, 125 ACTA (see Atmospheric Čerenkov Telescope Antarctica, 81, 99-100, 217 Array) Apache Point Observatory, 89, 165 Adaptive optics, 5, 23, 25, 38, 88, 111, 145, 151, ARCADE (Absolute Radiometer for 158, 165, 170, 171, 172, 177, 194, 196, Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse 201, 202, 227, 228, 230, 231, 236, 263 Emission), 222 Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System, 24-25, Arecibo, 85, 93, 169, 180, 262 97, 233, 251 ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry Advanced LIGO, 18, 39, 66, 75, 76, 98, 99 between Space and Earth), 16 Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation Arizona Radio Observatory, 93 program, 5, 25, 92, 146, 151, 152, 157- ASPERA (Astroparticle ERAnet), 86 158, 171, 176, 226, 236, 239 ASTRONET study, 83, 86, 96 recommended augmentation, 5, 236 Astronomers and astrophysicists Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, 34, 64, AAS membership, 117-118, 121 147, 171, 172, 181, 182, 188, 202, 203, amateur, 103, 107 231, 240, 263 contributions of, 4 AGIS (see Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging demography, 116-124 System) engagement in education, 111-112 

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Index  Atmospheric Čerenkov Telescope Array, 3-4, 7, minority representation, 30, 125-128 postdoctoral fellows, 122, 141, 152 24-25, 59, 93-94, 97, 190, 198, 200, 201, public policy role, 28-29, 115-116 203, 204, 232-234, 239-240, 241, 251, 263 publication statistics, 82-83, 119-120 recommendation, 7, 232-234 training and career development, 29-30, ATP (see Astrophysics Theory Program) 103-104, 109, 114, 116, 124-125, 128, ATST (see Advanced Technology Solar 133-134, 141, 149, 151-152, 157, 165 Telescope) women, 30, 127, 128-129 Auger, 81, 75, 164, 251 Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee, 100, 101, 102, 135, 143, 153 B Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, 16 n.2, 26, 81, 87, 95, 96, Balloon programs, 22, 59, 99-100, 150, 156, 167, 174, 175, 176, 185, 198, 214 175, 196-197, 217, 221, 222 Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey, 165 Program, 5, 25-26, 133, 140, 142, 152, Big bang, 1, 10, 13, 48, 52, 57, 59, 69, 72, 74, 236, 239 104, 110, 111, 137, 197-198 recommended augmentation, 5, 236 Big Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis 227, 261-262 grants program, 32, 133, 155-156, 157, Big Bear Solar Observatory, 180 162, 217, 220-221 BigBOSS (see Big Baryon Oscillation Astrophysics Theory Program, 5, 21, 133, 140, Spectroscopic Survey) 141, 142, 219, 222, 238 Black holes recommended augmentation, 5, 219 accretion, 8, 59, 138, 190-191 ATA (see Allen Telescope Array) cosmic order, 57-59, 203 Atacama Cosmology Telescope, 153 discovery, 79 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array dormant, 63 budget/funding, 93, 94, 179, 180, 188, 231, energy emissions, 42, 43, 51, 53, 58, 59, 62, 240 75, 149-150, 192, 200 capabilities and planned observations, 37, environmental impacts, 59 50, 53, 76, 82, 181, 188, 189, 191, 192, event horizon, 13, 59, 75, 200 194, 196, 201, 202, 203, 204, 228, 234 formation and evolution, 11, 13, 18, 42, 52- complementary programs/instruments, 3, 4, 53, 58, 191, 192, 205, 261-262 23, 25, 92, 132, 177, 189, 190, 201, 202, galactic nuclei, 1, 7, 11, 13, 42, 43, 52-53, 204, 228, 234, 235 57-59, 62, 63, 74-75, 107, 117, 118, 137, completion, 93, 169, 172, 188, 234 190-191, 192, 198, 209, 228 data archive, 143 gamma-ray astronomy, 51, 59, 75, 149-150, extended configuration, 170 198 laboratory astrophysics and, 160, 161 gravitational waves, 3, 13, 39, 42, 43, 45, 53, location, 25, 235 74-75, 98, 136, 191, 199, 200, 262 next generation, 95 images, 62, 63 partnerships, 81, 82-83, 93, 169 infrared astronomy, 53, 62, 190-191, 192, return on investment, 229 205 scientific promise/productivity, 33, 234 laser interferometry, 75, 209 upgrades/enhancements, 170, 180, 251 mass and spin characterization, 75, 191, 199, ATI (see Advanced Technologies and 209 Instrumentation) massive, 2, 39, 53, 190

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Index  Čerenkov Telescope Array, 7, 24, 25, 97, 233 mergers and collisions, 2, 8, 11, 13, 18, 39, 42, 43, 45, 53, 74-75, 98, 136, 191, 192, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, 89, 199, 200, 209, 228, 240, 262 165 Milky Way, 62, 228 Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, 20, 59, 61, 62, neutron star collapse, 66 63, 71-72, 80, 81, 132-133, 140, 166, 215 optical imaging, 62, 138 CIP (see Community Instrumentation origin/first, 2, 11, 48, 49-50, 52-53, 190 Programs) and public engagement in science, 104, 113 Climate research, 28-29, 34, 114-115 pulsars and, 262 CMB (see Cosmic microwave background) quasars, 11, 49-50, 79, 190, 203, 261 COBE (see Cosmic Background Explorer) radio astronomy, 52-53, 262 Combined Array for Research in Millimeter- simulations, 136, 138 wave Astronomy, 54, 92, 93, 169, 251 spectroscopic analysis, 53 Community Instrumentation Programs, 152 supermassive, 35, 42, 43, 52-53, 57-58, 59, Compact objects (see also Black holes; Neutron 62, 63, 75, 246 stars) supernovae and, 11, 13, 60, 66 binary systems, 18 UV astronomy, 63 general relativity around, 74-76 X-ray astronomy, 13, 19, 49-50, 53, 59, 62, Computer technology, high-performance, 111, 63, 75, 192, 198, 200 132, 136, 141-142 Blanco Telescope, 165, 169, 170 Constellation-X, 97, 214 BLISS (Background-Limited Infrared- Core research program Submillimeter Spectrograph), 218 augmentation, 4 data and software, 142-148 Explorer and suborbital programs, 149-151 C individual investigator grants, 4, 25-26, 132- 135, 140, 173, 201, 219, 222, 236 CANGAROO (Collaboration of Australia innovation, 151-153 and Nippon (Japan) for a Gamma Ray laboratory astrophysics, 159-162 Observatory in the Outback), 97 medium-scale activities, 148-154 CAREER awards, 109, 133 recommended additions and CARMA (see Combined Array for Research in augmentations, 219-222 Millimeter-wave Astronomy) technology development, 154-159 CATE (see Cost appraisal and technical theory, 135-142 evaluation) workforce development, 148-149 CCAT Cornell-Caltech Atacama Telescope (see CCAT) complementary technology, 4, 25, 196, 202, COROT (Convection, Rotation and Planetary 234 Transits), 40 cost appraisal and technical evaluation, 6, Cosmic acceleration, 13, 16, 47, 48, 49, 60, 68, 25, 234, 238, 251 70-71, 137-138, 196, 197, 200, 205, 206, design/capabilities, 190, 234, 235 223, 227, 247, 261-262 laboratory astrophysics demands, 160 Cosmic Background Explorer, 17-18, 80, 149 location, 25, 235 Cosmic microwave background operational time frame, 25 astrophysics, 99, 165, 173 partnerships, 6, 94, 234 COBE, 17-18, 80, 149 priority, 4, 234-235, 251 defined, 48 recommendation, 6, 25, 234-235 funding, 238, 241, 262-263 science objectives, 6, 25, 190, 192, 196, 201, gravitational wave astronomy, 70-71, 197- 202, 203, 204 198, 200, 217, 262-263 technical risk, 6, 25

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Index  inflation studies, 2, 3, 7, 13, 20-21, 18, 37, Dark matter 40, 69, 70-71, 197-198, 200, 217, 237, composition of the universe, 13, 48, 49; 71, 262-263 72, 73, 138, 190, 197 neutrino mass measurement, 74, 204 DOE experiments, 165, 173, 188 n.7, 240 polar programs, 99 galactic halos, 51, 52, 58, 59, 62, 69, 72, 203 polarization studies, 13, 69-70, 101, 155, gamma-ray astronomy, 24, 72, 200, 204, 233 159, 197-198, 217, 263 gravitational lensing, 52, 71, 73, 135 radio astronomy, 52 detection of particles, 7, 72, 135, 165, 200 standard cosmological model, 135, 196-197 nature of, 71-72, 204, 246, 247 suborbital programs, 5, 22, 222 neutrinos, 74 technology development, 92, 156, 174, 198, particle astrophysics, 13, 72, 98, 111, 136, 217, 238, 262-263 232-233 temperature fluctuations, 18, 40, 47, 69, 149 simulations, 138 universe age and content mapping, 37, 47- spectroscopic studies, 228 48, 135, 208 suborbital programs, 222 Cosmic paleontology, 11, 43, 46, 52, 137, 201, theoretical challenges, 71-72, 137, 138 247 X-ray astronomy, 71-72, 73, 203 Cosmic rays, 61, 66, 67, 72, 75, 80, 98, 123, 159, Data and software (see also Simulations) 164, 173, 202, 203, 222 2MASS archive, 143, 145 Cosmic Vision program, 83, 86, 97, 207, 212 ALFA HI archive, 145 Cosmological constant, 70, 71, 197 ALMA archive, 143 Cost appraisal and technical evaluation (see also analysis and simulations, 45-46 individual projects), 6-8, 186-187, 195, core research programs, 142-148 224, 250, 253-259 curation, 31, 143-147 CSO (see Caltech Submillimeter Observatory) and discovery, 3, 45-46 CTA (see Čerenkov Telescope Array) DOE, 31, 141, 143, 146, 147 CTIO (see Cerro Tololo Inter-American FIRST archive, 145 Observatory) ground-based projects, 31 HST archive, 143, 144, 145 LSST potential, 22, 143, 201, 203, 206 D NASA, 31, 143-144, 146, 147 NSF, 31, 146, 147 Dark energy, 35, 79, 98, 101, 173, 199, 246 NVSS archive, 145 Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey, proposal opportunities, 133 165 recommendations, 31, 146, 147 content of the universe, 49, 197 reduction and analysis software, 148 and cosmic acceleration, 13, 16, 47, 49, 70, SDSS archive, 143, 145 196, 197, 200 virtual observatories, 142, 145-146 cosmological constant and, 71, 197 WFIRST potential, 201 Dark Energy Camera, 100, 158, 165 DataNet program (Sustainable Digital Data Dark Energy Survey, 81 Preservation and Access Network Gemini studies, 5, 170, 177 Partners), 147 JDEM, 17, 97, 159, 174, 188 n.7, 206-207, Decadal survey implementation advisory 257, 258, 259 committee, 15, 19, 20, 102, 195, 198, 213, LSST survey, 3, 6, 22, 174, 197, 200, 223 214, 216-217, 237-238 theoretical investigations, 200 Department of Defense, 131 WFIRST, 3, 8, 16, 17, 197, 200, 205-206, 207, Department of Energy (DOE) 208 advisory groups, 98-99, 100, 101, 135, 143, 163, 188, 240

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Index  astrophysics research, 98, 99, 133, 163-165 interference in planet detection, 216 budget/costs/funding, 5, 14, 26, 98, 133, 140, molecular clouds enshrouded in, 56, 78 164, 188, 225, 233, 240, 241, 253, 256 nebulae, 106 CMB research, 165, 174 organic molecules on, 76 dark energy/matter experiments, 81, 97, 98, planet formation, 20, 53, 139 100, 158, 159, 164-165, 170, 173, 174, 188 stellar disks, 38, 54, 194, 196 n.7, 206-207, 240, 257, 258, 259 surveys, 4, 189, 203, 263 data handling and curation, 31, 141, 143, 146, 147 E Fusion Energy Sciences program, 165 grant programs, 133, 162 EHT (Event Horizon Telescope), 251 HEPAP, 99, 100, 163, 188, 240 Einstein’s theory of gravity (see General interagency collaborations, 22-23, 26, 81, relativity) 97, 100, 101, 147, 159, 165, 174, 185, 188, EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission), 97, 212 206-207, 223, 225, 233, 257, 258, 259 Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope, 16 international collaborations, 22, 97, 164, n.2, 198 n.13 165, 233 Epoch of inflation, 3, 13, 20-21, 37, 48, 49, 69, laboratory astrophysics, 31-32, 159, 161, 197-198, 200, 217, 263 162, 162, 165, 220-221, 266 Epoch of recombination, 48 LSST, 23, 24, 158, 159, 174, 175, 223, 225, Epoch of reionization, 10-11, 36, 49, 50, 92, 240 189, 190, 192, 198, 201, 227, 246, 247, Major Item of Equipment funds, 22, 225 262 national laboratories, 161, 162, 164 ESA (see European Space Agency) National Nuclear Security Administration, ESM (Electromagnetic Spectrum 31, 162, 165 Management), 152 nuclear weapons mission, 158 Euclid, see European Space Agency Office of High Energy Physics, 80, 98-99, Europa Jupiter System Mission, 97, 212 100, 140, 163, 164, 240 European Extremely Large Telescope, 83, 84, 94, Office of Nuclear Physics, 80 95-96, 229, 231 Office of Science, 14, 31, 98, 102, 162 European Southern Observatory, 82, 83, 88, 94, particle astrophysics projects, 98, 99, 140, 229, 231 163-165, 185, 188 European Space Agency (ESA) public-private partnerships, 22, 164, 174 COROT, 40 recommendations for, 15, 29, 31, 102, 116, Cosmic Vision program, 83, 86, 97, 207, 212 142, 147, 162, 237 Euclid M-class proposal, 17, 97, 207 small-scale projects, 5, 26 Herschel and Planck telescopes, 83 technology development, 23, 24, 99, 100, IXO partnership, 8, 19, 93-94, 97, 214, 215, 158-159, 174, 175, 223, 240, 251 258 theoretical and computational networks, 26, JDEM partnership, 174, 257, 258 31, 140, 141, 142, 162, 240 LISA partnership, 8, 18-19, 93, 97, 212, 213, training and career development, 165 214, 257, 258 DSIAC (see Decadal survey implementation SPICA mission, 21, 218 advisory committee) XEUS missions, 97, 214 Dunn Solar Telescope, 169, 172, 181 European Union, 82-83, 84 Dust EVLA (see Expanded Very Large Array) chemical reactions on grain surfaces, 159 EXIST (see Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey n.25, 161 Telescope)

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Index 0 F Exoplanet astronomy discoveries, 12 FASR (see Frequency Agile Solar dust debris disks, 38, 194 Radiotelescope) gravitational microlensing, 15, 192-193, 196 Federal Funding of Astronomical Research gravitational waves, 12, 192-193, 204 (FFAR) report, 113, 119, 120 infrared surveys, 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 41, 192-193, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, 43, 59, 72, 194, 195-196, 205, 207, 208, 215-216, 228 80, 81, 97, 99, 100, 132-133, 140, 159, radial velocity surveys, 12, 20, 38, 40, 192, 164-165, 166 193, 195 n.10, 196, 227, 263 FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at radio surveys, 12 Twenty-one Centimeters), 145 UV survey, 5 Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope, 34, 175, New Worlds Technology Development 181, 182, 202, 227, 251, 262 Program, 3, 7, 20, 215-217, 237 FUSE (Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer), Exoplanets (see also Exoplanet astronomy) 168, 219 atmospheric composition, 12, 41 discovery, 2, 10, 12, 36, 37-39, 40-41, 191 census of Earth-like planets, 191-192, 196, G 217 Kepler mission, 12, 16, 37, 40, 81, 133, 166, GAIA (Graphical Astronomy and Image 168, 192, 193, 195, 196, 205, 215, 259 Analysis), 44 molecular signatures, 12, 39, 41, 67-68, 77, Galaxies 296 active, 117, 118, 246 New Worlds Technology Development baryon cycling, 57, 137, 205-206, 247 Program, 3, 7, 20, 215-217, 237 black holes/nuclei, 1, 7, 11, 13, 42, 43, 52-53, science objectives, 2, 36, 57, 189, 191-195, 57-59, 62, 63, 74-75, 107, 117, 118, 137, 196 190-191, 192, 198, 209, 228 stellar characteristics, 196, 202, 247 chemistry, 57, 61, 76, 77, 204 technology development, 20, 195 clusters, 47, 52, 71, 73, 74, 117, 118, 120, water, 12, 39 197, 198, 200, 213-214, 234, 246 Expanded Very Large Array, 50, 53, 82, 85, 93, dark energy and, 197 96, 169, 172, 179, 251 dark matter, 51, 52-53, 58, 59, 62, 69, 71, 72, Explorer program 73, 137, 190, 203 budget/costs/funding, 8, 17, 18 distribution mapping, 47, 52, 69, 197, 200, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, 18, 63, 150, 166, 261 168, 208, 219, 221 earliest, 5, 10, 11, 49, 50, 137, 177, 189, 192, MIDEX missions, 8, 17-18, 37, 47, 69, 80, 99, 228 133, 149-150, 166, 168, 208, 210, 221 formation and evolution, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 16, Missions of Opportunity, 8, 18, 150, 208, 18, 21, 35, 39, 42, 45, 49, 51, 52, 58, 59, 209, 210, 217 72, 74-75, 137, 150, 189, 190-191, 192, recommendation, 8, 18, 208-209 198, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 218, Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar 220, 227, 234, 246, 247, 261-262 Spectroscopic Imager, 18 gamma-ray surveys, 164 SMEX missions, 8, 18; see also GEMS gas distributions and exchanges, 73, 190, Swift mission, 17, 18, 37, 80, 133, 149-150, 192, 203, 228, 246 166, 168, 210 gravitational lensing, 73, 197, 200, 205 WISE, 17, 18, 150, 166, 168, 210 gravitational waves, 11, 39, 75, 192 WMAP, 17-18, 47, 69, 80, 99, 149, 168, 208, high-redshift, 76, 202 210, 221 hot gases, 2, 3, 5, 52, 57, 58, 71-72, 213-214

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Index  life cycles, 58-59, 62-63 exoplanet survey, 38 mass, 58, 190 funding, 5, 26, 92, 171, 176, 177, 178, 239 mass-energy-chemical cycles, 57, 247 instrumentation, 170, 171, 176, 177, 194 mergers, 11, 39, 42, 51, 57, 58, 191, 192, 209 international collaboration, 26, 33, 81, 83, millimeter and submillimeter imaging 89, 170, 178, 236 surveys, 25, 190, 192 management, 26, 33, 88, 90, 170, 176, 177, neutron stars, 75 178, 179, 236 OIR surveys, 3, 8, 16, 18, 177, 190-191, 192, recommended augmentation, 5, 33, 179, 197, 202, 203, 205, 206, 227, 228 236, 239 origins, 10, 46-47, 48, 51-52, 200 GEMS (Gravity and Extreme Magnetism properties, 58-59, 61, 71, 76, 203, 228, 246 SMEX), 167, 168, 210 protogalaxies, 50, 246 General relativity, 8, 12, 18, 35, 37, 39, 70, 74- quasars, 11, 190 76, 195-196, 197, 198, 199 radio astronomy, 44 Giant Magellan Telescope, 7, 23, 24, 94, 229-231 simulations and mathematical modeling, 45, Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope 137, 141 n.7, 191 complementary technology, 3, 23, 95, 190, structure, 58, 137, 223, 246 191, 200, 202, 203, 204, 228, 229 supernovae and, 60, 61, 62, 63 cost/funding, 6, 7, 24, 92, 153, 175, 176, 227, UV surveys, 5, 62, 150, 190 229, 231-232, 239-240, 251 X-ray astronomy, 42, 62, 74, 191, 213-214 design/capabilities, 23, 201, 204, 228, 230 youngest, 190, 192 GMT, 7, 23, 24, 94, 229-231 Galaxy Evolution Explorer, 18, 63, 133, 150, management, 178 166, 168, 208, 219, 221 operational timescale, 231, 239 Galaxy Zoo, 105-106, 107 partnerships, 23-24, 94-95, 229, 231, 232 GALEX (see Galaxy Evolution Explorer) recommendation, 6, 23-24, 228-232 Gamma-ray astronomy and astrophysics technical risk, 6, 229 ACTA, 3-4, 7, 24-25, 59, 93-94, 97, 190, 198, technology development, 227, 231 200, 201, 203, 204, 232-234, 239-240, TMT, 6, 23, 24, 94, 229-231 241, 251, 263 GMT (see Giant Magellan Telescope) AGIS, 24-25, 97, 233, 251 GONG (Global Oscillation Network Group), all-sky maps, 164, 227, 241, 263 169 black holes, 51, 59, 75, 149-150, 198 Grand Telescopio Canarias, 82 burst events, 18, 37, 44-45, 75, 141 n.7, 149, Gravitational lensing, 16, 52, 71, 73, 135, 197- 200, 223 198, 200, 223, 262 Čerenkov Telescope Array, 7, 24, 25, 97, 233 Gravitational microlensing, 12, 16, 103, 135, dark matter, 24, 72, 200, 204, 233 192-193, 196, 205, 207, 208 FGST, 43, 59, 72, 80, 81, 97, 99, 100, 132- Gravitational wave astronomy, 263 133, 140, 159, 164-165, 166 Advanced LIGO, 18, 39, 66, 75, 76, 98, 99 HAWC experiment, 227, 241, 263 black hole mergers and, 3, 13, 39, 42, 43, 45, suborbital programs, 150 53, 74-75, 98, 136, 191, 199, 200, 262 supernova explosions, 66, 67 bursts of radiation, 191, 192, 200 VERITAS, 59, 81, 97, 159, 164, 169, 232, 233 CMB research, 70-71, 197-198, 200, 217, very high energy, 3-4, 24, 67, 198, 227, 232- 262-263 234, 241, 249, 263 detection, 13, 20, 39, 199, 227, 251 Gemini Observatory, 132 discovery potential of, 35, 36, 39, 42-43, 45, costs, 177, 178 74-75, 201, 247 dark energy surveys, 5, 170, 177 exoplanet surveys, 192-193, 204 data archives, 145 galaxy formation, 11, 39, 75, 192

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Index  ground-based observatories, 18, 39, 227, Hubble Space Telescope, 12, 21, 41, 51, 54, 56, 251, 262 62, 63, 66, 71-72, 73, 80, 81, 104, 105, inflationary, 20-21, 69-70, 197-198, 200, 217, 113, 132-133, 140, 143, 144, 145, 165, 262-263 166, 167, 168, 190, 200, 219, 220, 227, neutron star mergers, 45, 75, 199 228, 263 origin, 8, 11, 39, 43 Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array, 94, 96, physics, 98, 99, 249 189, 192, 227, 247, 251, 262 pulsar timing, 227, 251, 262 radio astronomy, 41 I relativity tests, 74, 199 simulations, 136 IceCube, 81, 99, 168-169 space-based observatories, 2, 53, 80 (see also Inflation Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) CMB studies, 2, 3, 7, 13, 20-21, 18, 37, spectrum, 39 40, 69, 70-71, 197-198, 200, 217, 237, supernovae, 39, 66, 76, 136, 197 262-263 X-ray astronomy, 41 epoch of, 3, 13, 20-21, 37, 49, 69, 197-198, Great Observatories, 141, 144, 166 200, 217, 263 Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer, gravitational wave astronomy, 20-21, 69-70, 181 197-198, 200, 217, 262-263 Green Bank Telescope, 78, 85, 93, 96, 169, 179, Inflation Probe Technology Development 180 n.12, 251 program, 3, 7, 20-21, 217-218, 237 GSMT (see Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope) recommendation, 7, 217-218 Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, 105, 146 H Infrared Telescope Facility, 89, 167, 169 HAWC (see High Altitude Water Čerenkov) Instrumentation (see also Technology HEASARC (High Energy Astrophysics Science development) Archive Research Center), 146 adaptive optics, 5, 25, 171, 236 HEGRA (High Energy Gamma Ray ATI program, 5, 25, 92, 146, 151, 152, 157- Astronomy), 97 158, 171, 176, 226, 236, 239 HEPAP (see High Energy Physics Advisory Community Instrumentation Programs, 252 Panel) funding/costs, 88, 90, 95, 152, 153, 157, 171, HERA (see Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization 172, 173, 176, 177, 236, 239, 251 Array) medium-scale, 15, 153, 176, 251 Herschel telescope, 22, 81, 83, 161, 165, 166, Mid-Scale Innovations Program 220 augmentation, 151, 153, 176, 225-226, HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), 97, 263 232 MREFC, 6, 23, 24, 153 HET (Hobby-Eberly Telescope), 89 MRI, 6, 92, 151, 153, 157, 171, 176, 225, 227 High Altitude Observatory, 99, 180-181 open access to privately owned telescopes, High Altitude Water Čerenkov experiment, 227, 26, 33, 88, 90, 92, 152, 153, 176, 177, 178, 241, 263 194, 231, 239, 251 High Energy Physics Advisory Panel, 99, 100, recommendations, 4, 5, 34, 153, 156, 182, 163, 188, 240 236 HST, see Hubble Space Telescope ReSTAR, 88, 171, 176, 177, 178 solar telescope, 263

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Index  J training, 116, 125, 126, 149, 150-151, 153, 225 James Webb Space Telescope, 3, 5, 17, 22, 23, TSIP, 26, 33, 90, 92, 152, 153, 171, 176, 177, 38, 41, 50, 53, 59, 81, 161, 165-166, 167, 178, 194, 231, 236, 239, 251 168, 177, 187, 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, workforce, 126, 149 196, 201, 202, 203, 204, 219, 220, 228, INTEGRAL, 133, 166 229, 259 Interagency collaborations Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), DOE, 22-23, 26, 81, 97, 100, 101, 147, 159, 5, 8, 16 n.2, 19, 21, 81, 83, 84, 95, 97, 165, 165, 174, 185, 188, 206-207, 223, 225, 167, 210, 214, 215, 218, 238 233, 257, 258, 259 JAXA (see Japan Aerospace Exploration NASA, 5, 8, 16-17, 97, 99-100, 101, 135, 147, Agency) 159, 165, 174, 185, 205, 206-207, 220- JDEM (see Joint Dark Energy Mission) 221, 257, 258, 259 Joint Dark Energy Mission, 97, 159, 174, 206- NSF, 5, 22-23, 25, 81, 89, 99-100, 147, 165, 207, 257, 258, 259 188, 223, 225 Omega concept, 17 International collaborations, 2, 4 JWST (see James Webb Space Telescope) DOE, 22, 97, 164, 165, 233 Gemini, 26, 33, 81, 83, 89, 170, 178, 236 NASA, 5, 8, 18-19, 93, 94, 97, 155, 166, 212- K 213, 214-215, 218, 237-238, 240, 257, 258 NSF, 5, 6, 7, 25, 26, 33, 88, 89, 92, 93, 95, Keck Observatory, 38, 89, 90, 167, 169, 200, 216, 165, 169, 170, 176-179, 232, 233, 236 229 strategic planning, 28, 86-87 Kepler mission, 12, 16, 37, 40, 81, 133, 166, 168, International Traffic in Arms Regulations, 84, 192, 193, 195, 196, 205, 215, 259 175 Kitt Peak National Observatory, 87, 89, 170, 261 International Virtual Observatory, 142 Kuiper belt, 6, 38, 43, 216 n.17 International X-ray Observatory complementary technology, 20, 97, 215 cost/funding, 8, 19, 155, 214, 237, 238, 251, L 257, 258, 259 La Silla Observatory, 88 design/configuration, 19, 213, 214 Laboratory astrophysics partnerships, 8, 19, 93-94, 97, 214 ALMA, 160, 161 laboratory astrophysics demands, 22, 220 CCAT, 160 launch date and mission timeline, 19, 212, DOE, 31-32, 159, 161, 162, 162, 165, 220- 214 221, 266 recommendation, 8, 213-215 IXO, 22, 220 science objectives, 3, 8, 19, 20, 190-191, 192, NASA, 5, 32, 162, 220-221 196, 198, 200, 202, 213-214, 215 NSF, 5, 32, 159, 161, 162 technical risk, 3, 8, 214, 215 recommended augmentation, 5, 32, 220-221 technology development, 19, 155, 214, 215, scope and needs, 159-161 237-238 Large Area Telescope, 164-165 International Year of Astronomy, 108 Large Binocular Telescope, 89, 216 Interstellar medium, 5, 21, 53, 66, 76, 77, 111, Large Hadron Collider, 72, 204 117, 118, 120, 137, 203, 218, 220, 246 Large Synoptic Survey Telescope IRAM telescopes, 82 cost/funding, 6, 22-23, 92, 153, 176, 188 n.7, IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), 80 223, 224-225, 227, 238, 239, 240, 251 Isaac Newton Telescope, 107 dark energy survey, 3, 6, 22, 174, 197, 200, 223 IXO (see International X-ray Observatory)

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Index  database potential, 22, 143, 201, 203, 206 Major Research Instrumentation Program, 6, design/configuration, 22, 223-224 92, 151, 153, 157, 171, 176, 225, 227 DOE and, 23, 24, 158, 159, 174, 175, 223, MAST (Multimission Archive at STScI), 146 225, 240 Mathematical and Physical Sciences Advisory location, 22, 223 Committee, 100 partnerships, 22, 84, 94, 223, 240 Mayall Telescope, 169, 170, 281 recommendation, 6, 223-225 McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, 169, 181 science objectives, 3, 6, 22, 188 n.7, 191, 197, MeerKAT, 96 200, 201, 223 Meese Solar Observatory, 180 technical risk, 6, 23, 224 Microlensing Planet Finder, 205 n.14 technology development, 23, 24, 158, 159, Microsoft World Wide Telescope, 105 174, 175, 223 MIDEX missions (see Explorer program) Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Mid-Scale Innovations Program Observatory, 81, 99, 168-169, 199 BigBOSS, 227, 261-262 Advanced LIGO, 18, 39, 66, 75, 76, 98, 99 cosmic microwave background initiatives, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna 227, 262-263 cost/funding, 8, 19, 168, 212-213, 238, 257, cost/funding, 6, 7, 23, 151-153, 205, 226- 258, 259 227, 238, 261-263 design/configuration, 209, 212 exoplanet initiatives, 227, 263 ESA partnership, 8, 18-19, 93, 97, 212, 214 FASR, 34, 175, 181, 182, 202, 227, 251, 262 launch date and mission timeline, 97, 209, HAWC experiment, 227, 241, 263 212-213, 214 HERA, 94, 96, 189, 192, 227, 247, 251, Pathfinder mission, 8, 18-19, 155, 213 262 recommendation, 8, 209, 212-213 instrumentation, 151, 153, 225, 263 science objectives, 3, 8, 18, 75, 191, 192, 199, NANOGrav, 227, 262 200, 201, 209 recommendation, 6, 23, 225-227, 234 technical risk, 8, 18-19, 213 science objectives, 3, 6, 227 technology development, 155, 214, 237-238 Telescope System Instrument Program, 153 LISA (see Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) training grants, 151, 153, 225 LMT (Large Millimeter Telescope), 93 University Radio Observatory program, Long-duration balloon, 222 153 LSST (see Large Synoptic Survey Telescope) Milagro telescope, 97 Milky Way, 6, 11, 16, 18, 40, 44, 47, 50, 52, 53, 54, 57, 59, 62, 63, 66, 76, 164, 198, 201, M 202, 228, 205, 206, 223 Minority University Research and Education Magellan Observatory, 89 Program, 127 Magellanic Clouds, 56, 202 Missions of Opportunity, 8, 18, 150, 208, 209, MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray 210, 217 Imaging Čerenkov Telescope), 97, 232 MMT Observatory, 89 Magnetars, 76 MREFC (see Major Research Equipment and Magnetic fields and magnetic activity, 57, 61, Facilities Construction) 63-64, 67, 75, 76, 137, 158 n.25, 160-161, MRI (see Major Research Instrumentation 171-172, 181, 199, 203, 220, 247 Program) Major Research Equipment and Facilities Mount Wilson Observatory, 180 Construction, 6, 22, 23, 24, 99, 153, 158, Murchison Widefield Array, 50, 153 171, 172, 188, 205, 225, 227, 231, 232, 239-240, 256, 263

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Index  N National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, 93, 96, 169 NANOGrav (see North American Nanohertz National Center for Atmospheric Research, 99 Observatory for Gravitational Waves) National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 33, National Aeronautics and Space Administration 87-88, 89, 90, 92, 95, 132, 170, 171, 176, (NASA) 177, 178-179, 225 Astrophysics Division, 80, 98, 100, 133, 141, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 73, 167, 175, 187, 237-238 78, 85, 92, 93, 96, 122, 132, 169-170, 179, ATP, 5, 21, 133, 140, 141, 142, 168, 219, 222, 180, 181 238 National Science Foundation (NSF) balloon program, 99-100, 167 AAG program, 5, 25-26, 133, 140, 142, 152, budget/costs/funding, 5, 8, 14, 19, 20, 22, 162, 239 98, 109, 133-135, 140, 141, 167, 168, 175, ARRA funding, 171 187, 212-213, 214, 218, 222, 237, 238, Astronomical Sciences (AST) Division, 24, 251, 253, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259 25, 32, 33-34, 60, 80, 93, 98, 99, 100-101, core research program, 21-22, 131, 133 109, 133, 134, 140, 141, 152, 153, 157- grant programs, 32, 132-133, 135, 140, 155- 158, 161, 162, 165, 168, 169, 170, 171, 156, 157, 162, 201, 207, 217, 220-221 172-173, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, Heliophysics Division, 80, 182 n.16 187, 188, 226, 227, 233, 238-240, 266 interagency collaborations, 5, 8, 16-17, 97, ATI program, 5, 25, 92, 146, 151, 152, 157- 99-100, 101, 135, 147, 159, 165, 174, 185, 158, 171, 176, 226, 236, 239 205, 206-207, 220-221, 257, 258, 259 Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences international collaborations, 5, 8, 18-19, 93, Division, 80, 93, 99, 168-169, 180, 94, 97, 155, 166, 212-213, 214-215, 218, 181-182 237-238, 240, 257, 258 balloon program, 99 JDEM, 17, 97, 159, 174, 206-207, 257, 258, budget/costs/funding, 5, 6, 7, 14, 22-23, 32, 259 92, 93, 96, 98, 134, 152, 161, 169-170, laboratory astrophysics, 5, 32, 162, 220-221 176, 179-180, 181-182, 187-188, 238-240, Minority University Research and Education 253, 262-263 Program, 127 Committee of Visitors, 101, 153 Planetary Exploration program, 140 Community Instrumentation Programs, 152 public outreach and education, 105, 108, core research program, 4, 21, 131, 235-237 109, 112 data handling and curation, 31, 146, 147 public-private partnerships, 88, 89, 90, 167, 169 Directorate for Education and Human recommendations for, 15, 19, 29, 31, 32, 34, Resources, 109 102, 116, 142, 147, 162, 174-175, 201, Directorate for Mathematical and Physical 218, 237-238 Sciences, 98, 100, 101, 134, 152, 153, 226, Science Mission Directorate, 168 227 Spitzer Infrared Processing and Analysis Frontier Centers, 140, 141 Center, 105 Geosciences Directorate, 99 Suborbital Program, 5, 150-151, 167, 194, grant programs, 5, 25-26, 29, 98, 99, 109, 221-222 133, 134-135, 140-141, 142, 151-153, 173, technology development, 5, 20, 21-22, 112, 201, 236, 239 149, 154-157, 174, 214-217, 218, 219-220, instrumentation programs, 5, 26, 29, 33, 90, 237-238 92, 140-141, 149, 151-153, 170-171, 172- theory and computation networks, 5, 22, 31, 173, 176, 177, 178, 194, 225, 226, 231, 141-142, 201, 222, 237 236, 239, 251 training and career development, 114, 116, interagency collaborations, 5, 22-23, 25, 81, 127, 133-134, 149, 157 89, 99-100, 147, 165, 188, 223, 225

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Index  international collaborations, 5, 6, 7, 25, 26, NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera and Multi- 33, 88, 89, 92, 93, 95, 165, 169, 170, 176- Object Spectrometer), 41 179, 232, 233, 236 NOAO (see National Optical Astronomy laboratory astrophysics, 5, 32, 159, 161, 162 Observatory) Materials Research Division, 153 North American Nanohertz Observatory for Mathematical and Physical Sciences Gravitational Waves, 227, 262 Advisory Committee, 100 NRAO (see National Radio Astronomy McMurdo station, 99-100 Observatory) MREFC programs, 6, 22, 23, 24, 99, 153, NSO (see National Solar Observatory) 158, 171, 172, 188, 205, 225, 227, 231, NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope 232, 239-240, 256, 263 Array), 167, 210 Office of CyberInfrastructure, 80, 141, 147 NVSS (NRAO VLA Sky Survey), 145 Office of Polar Programs, 80, 93, 98, 99, 169-170 O Physics (PHY) programs, 25, 80, 98, 99, 100, 140, 141, 153, 159, 161, 165, 168, 188, Office of Management and Budget, 15, 29, 102, 233 116 public outreach and education, 109, 112 Office of Naval Research, 180 public-private partnerships, 33, 88, 89, 90, Office of Science and Technology Policy, 15, 29, 92, 93, 169-170, 176, 180, 232, 234 100, 101, 102, 116 recommendations for, 6, 7, 15, 25, 31, 32, Open access to privately owned telescopes, 4, 33-34, 102, 116, 142, 147, 162, 173, 179, 26, 33, 88, 90, 92, 152, 153, 176, 177, 178, 182, 238-240 194, 231, 239, 251 Science and Technology Centers, 152 Optical and infrared (OIR) astronomy (see also senior reviews of facility support, 32, 87-88, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope; Gemini 101, 153, 170, 173, 176, 177 Observatory; Giant Segmented Mirror solar astronomy, 34, 99, 168, 169, 171-172, Telescope) 173, 175, 180-182 dark energy, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 16, 17, 22, 170, 177, technology development, 5, 20, 100, 149, 197, 200, 205-206, 207, 208, 223 152, 157-158, 175, 226, 236, 238-239, dark matter, 6, 22, 158, 223, 240 251 data archiving, 145, 148 TSIP, 5, 26, 29, 33, 90, 92, 140-141, 153, 171, NOAO, 33, 87-88, 89, 90, 92, 95, 132, 170, 171, 176, 177, 178, 194, 231, 236, 239, 251 176, 177, 178-179, 225 training and career development, 109, 128, NSF, 33, 87-88, 89, 90, 92, 95, 100, 168, 169, 141, 149, 151-152 170, 173, 175, 176-179, 181, 185 National Solar Observatory, 34, 99, 172, 180, telescope instrument development, 5, 23, 26, 181 33, 90, 92, 153, 171, 176, 177, 178, 194, National Virtual Observatory, 142, 145-146 231, 236, 239, 251 Near-Earth objects, 3, 6, 18, 223 Optical Society of America, 120 Near-Infrared Sky Surveyor, 205 n.14 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Neutrinos, 35, 66, 68, 72-74, 80, 99, 137, 204, Development, 86 246, 247 Owens Valley Solar Array, 181 Neutron stars, 8, 11-12, 35, 39, 43, 45, 46, 60, 61, 66, 72, 75, 76, 79, 98, 199, 203, 204, 213, 222, 262 (see also Pulsars) P New Worlds Technology Development Program, 3, 7, 20, 215-217, 237 Palomar Observatory, 89 recommendation, 7, 215-217 Paranal Observatory, 88

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Index  Particle astrophysics, 5, 7, 13, 27, 66, 72, 97, 98, pulsars, 12, 43, 61, 76, 145, 199, 203, 227, 232, 99, 111, 135, 136, 140, 150, 163-165, 185, 251, 262 188, 200, 232-233 reionization epoch, 49 Particle Astrophysics Scientific Assessment SKA, 28, 33-34, 82, 83, 94, 95-96, 143, 153, Group, 99, 164, 188 175, 179, 180, 227 Pathfinder mission, 18-19, 155, 213 SMA, 54, 93, 160 Planck telescope, 20, 81, 99, 165, 166, 198, 217 Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect, 52, 262 Plasma physics, 22, 48, 65, 75, 99, 115, 159, 160, technology development, 79-80 161, 181, 198, 220 Renewing Small Telescopes for Astronomical PLATO (Planetary Transits and Oscillations Research, 88, 171, 176, 177, 178 of Stars), 207 (see also European Space Research Experiences for Undergraduates Agency) program, 128 Program Prioritization Panels ReSTAR (see Renewing Small Telescopes for charge to, 249 Astronomical Research) scientific scope, 250 Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar summary of findings, 251 Spectroscopic Imager, 18 Public-private partnerships RXTE (Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer), 166 DOE, 22, 164, 174 ground-based OIR astronomy, 87-92 S ground-based RMS astronomy, 92-93 NASA, 88, 89, 90, 167, 169 SALT (South African Large Telescope), 89 NSF, 33, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 169-170, 176, 180, SAMURAI (Science of AGNs and Masers 232, 234 with Unprecedented Resolution in Pulsars, 12, 43, 61, 76, 145, 199, 203, 227, 232, Astronomical Imaging), 16 n.2 251, 262 San Fernando Observatory, 180 Science Frontiers Panels charge to, 245 Q scientific scope, 246 Quasars, 11, 49-50, 79, 190, 203, 261 summary of findings, 247 QUIET, 153 SDO (see Solar Dynamics Observatory) SETI Institute, 93 SIM (see Space Interferometry Mission) R SKA (see Square Kilometer Array) Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 22, 47, 73, 99, 106 n.2, Radio, millimeter, and submillimeter (RMS) 143, 145, 147, 153 astronomy (see also Atacama Large Sloan Lens ACS Survey, 73 Millimeter/submillimeter Array) SMA (Submillimeter Array), 54, 93, 160 ARISE, 16 n.2 SMEX missions, see Explorer program black holes, 52-53, 262 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 131 EVLA, 50, 53, 82, 85, 93, 96, 169, 172, 179, n.1, 231 n.23 251 Smithsonian Institution, 80, 89, 93, 131 future system, 2, 179-180 SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research) galactic mergers, 42 Telescope, 89, 169 Green Bank Telescope, 78, 85, 93, 96, 169, 179, SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared 180 n.12, 251 Astronomy), 76, 167 instrumentation, 5 SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), international collaborations, 28, 33-34, 82, 83, 181 94, 95-96, 143, 153, 175, 179, 180, 227

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Index  Solar astronomy and astrophysics pulsars, 12, 43, 61, 76, 145, 199, 203, 227, ATST, 34, 64, 147, 171, 172, 181, 182, 188, 232, 251, 262 202, 203, 231, 240, 263 radial velocity surveys, 12, 20, 38, 40, 192, climate research, 28-29, 34, 114-115 193, 195 n.10, 196, 227, 263 FASR, 34, 175, 181, 182, 202, 227, 251, 262 rotation, 64 ground-based, xvi, 34 seismology, 64 laboratory astrophysics, 160-161 simulations, 64 magnetic fields, 64, 137, 160-161, 171-172, structure, 3, 59-66 181 theoretical research, 137, 141 n.7 NSO, 34, 99, 172, 180, 181 white dwarf, 3, 44, 46, 60, 61, 64-65, 139 observatory system, 180-182 STEREO (Solar-Terrestrial Relations SDO, 64, 65, 137, 146-147, 181 Observatory), 181 simulations, 171-172 Suborbital programs, 4, 5, 20, 22, 150-151, 157, UV, 64, 65, 146-147, 181 167, 174, 175, 208, 209, 216, 217, 222, Solar Dynamics Observatory, 64, 65, 137, 146- 262 147, 181 recommended augmentation, 5, 221-222 South Pole Telescope, 69, 93, 99, 169 Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect, 52, 262 Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Supernovae Astrophysics, 5, 21, 22, 155, 218, 237, and black holes, 11, 13, 60, 66 238 and cosmic evolution, 45, 57, 61, 67, 70, 203 recommendation, 5, 218 dark energy measurements, 16, 70, 223 Space Interferometry Mission (SIM and discoveries by amateurs, 103, 104 SIMLite), 16 n.2, 174, 195 n.2 distance measurements, 16, 70 SPICA (see Space Infrared telescope for gamma-ray astronomy, 44, 67, 206 Cosmology and Astrophysics) gravitational lensing, 197 Spitzer Space Telescope, 12, 41, 54, 62, 63, 66, gravitational wave detection, 39, 66, 76, 136, 80, 81, 132-133, 140, 165, 166, 194, 200, 197 216 n.17, 218 heavy element ejection, 58, 60-61, 63 Square Kilometer Array, 28, 33-34, 82, 83, 94, images, 61-62, 63, 67, 139 95-96, 143, 153, 175, 179, 180, 227 and neutron stars, 61, 66, 72, 203 Standard model of particle physics, 73-74 process and galactic effects, 58, 60-61, 63 Stars (see also Solar astronomy; Stellar) simulations, 66, 136-139, 141 n.7 binary, 43 n.3, 45, 60, 64-65, 199, 209, 232 theoretical challenges, 137, 139 earliest, 11, 48, 49, 51 Type Ia (white dwarf), 44, 57, 60-61, 64-66, chemical composition, 51, 59, 60, 61 139, 203, 247 compact binaries, 8 Type II variety, 44, 60, 203 coolant deaths, 51 wide-field sky surveys, 66 coolest, 18 Suzaku, 133, 165, 166, 210 cosmic order, 59-61, 64-65 Swift mission, 17, 18, 37, 80, 133, 149-150, 166, dust-enshrouded, 54-55, 56, 67 169, 210 exploding (see Supernovae) life cycle, 59-61, 64-66 T magnetic field, 64 mass, 60-61 Technology development (see Inflation Probe molecular analysis, 160 Technology Development program) origin and evolution, 5, 11, 21, 48, 49, 50, Technology development, intermediate, 52, 53-56, 59-60, 137, 141 n.7, 160 recommended augmentation, 5, 220

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Index  U Telescope System Instrument Program, 5, 26, 33, 85, 90, 92, 153, 171, 176, 177, 178, UHURU observatory, 80 194, 231, 236, 239, 251 Ultralong-duration balloon program, 222, 251 recommended augmentation, 5, 236 Ultraviolet astronomy, 5, 21, 49, 52, 63, 65, 80, Theoretical research 117, 118, 119, 150, 155, 156, 161, 166, ATP, 5, 21, 133, 140, 141, 142, 219, 222, 238 181, 190, 195, 203, 219, 220, 238 black holes, 13, 35, 39, 46, 53, 74-75, 198, recommendation, 5, 219-220 199, 200, 240 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, challenges for next decade, 137-139 Scientific and Cultural Organization), computational astrophysics, 5, 136, 140-142 108 dark energy, 200 Universe dark matter, 3, 46, 71-72, 137, 138 universe age and content mapping, 37, 47- DOE, 26, 31, 140, 141, 142, 162, 240 48, 135, 208 frontiers of knowledge, 68-78 acceleration (see Cosmic acceleration) funding, 31, 140, 141 chemistry, 76-78 general relativity, 8, 12, 18, 37, 70, 74-76, dark matter content, 13, 48, 49; 71, 72, 73, 195-196, 197, 198, 199 138, 190, 197 inflation, 69-70 epoch of inflation, 3, 13, 20-21, 37, 48, 49, particle physics, 72-74, 135-136 69, 197-198, 200, 217, 263 planet formation, 139 epoch of recombination, 48 simulations and, 136, 137 epoch of reionization, 10-11, 36, 49, 50, 92, standard cosmological model, 135, 196-197 189, 190, 192, 198, 201, 227, 246, 247, Theory and Computation Networks, 5, 22, 26, 262 30-31, 142, 222, 237, 240 hot, 2 recommended augmentation, 5, 222 inflation hypothesis, 69-70 THINGS survey, 73 most distant object detected, 18 Thirty Meter Telescope, 6, 23, 24, 94, 229-231 origin, 1, 13, 47-48 Time-domain astronomy, 2, 35, 36, 43-45, 52, priority objectives, 2 203, 225, 247, 262 Time-variable phenomena, 2, 6, 22, 143, 223 TMT (see Thirty Meter Telescope) V TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer), 181 VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Training and career development Telescope Array System), 59, 81, 97, 159, America COMPETES Act and, 113-114 164, 169, 232, 233 core research program, 148-149 VLA (Very Large Array), 54, 73, 143, 181 DOE, 165 VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array), 85, 93, 96, family friendly policies, 122, 128-129 169, 180 instrumentation, 116, 125, 126, 148-149, VLBI Space Observatory Programme, 16 n.2 150-151, 153, 225 VLT (Very Large Telescope), 82-83, 84, 88, 90 mentoring, 125, 126, 127, 128, 142 minorities, 30, 125-128 NASA, 114, 116, 127, 133-134, 149, 157 W NSF, 109, 128, 141, 149, 151-152 Water, 12, 20, 39, 43, 68, 110, 191, 215 women, 30, 127, 128-129 WFIRST (see Wide-Field Infrared Survey TSIP (see Telescope System Instrument Telescope) Program) White dwarf stars, 3, 44, 46, 60, 61, 64-65, 139

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Index 0 Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, 17, 18, WISE (see Wide-Field Infrared Survey 150, 166, 168, 169, 210 Explorer) Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope WIYN (Wisconsin, Indiana, Yale, and NOAO) complementary technology, 17, 197, 208, Observatory, 89, 169 223 WMAP (see Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy cosmic acceleration, 200, 206 Probe) cost/funding, 8, 17, 168, 207, 238, 240, 241, Women in astronomy, 128-129 251, 257 Workforce, 126, 149 (see also Astronomers; dark energy survey, 3, 8, 16, 17, 197, 200, Training and career development) 205-206, 207, 208 database potential, 201 X Euclid and, 207 general investigator program, 207 XEUS (X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy), gravitational microlensing, 192-193, 196 97, 214 guest investigator program, 16, 17, 206, 207 X-ray astronomy (see also Chandra; launch date and mission timeline, 8, 17, 207, International X-ray Observatory) 208, 237 black holes, 13, 19, 49-50, 53, 59, 62, 63, 75, partnership opportunities, 17, 93-94, 207- 192, 198, 200 208, 237 dark matter, 71-72, 73, 203 recommendation, 3, 8, 16, 205-208 galaxies, 42, 62, 74, 191, 213-214 science objectives, 3, 8, 16, 17, 158, 190-191, gravitational waves, 41 192-193, 195-196, 197, 200, 205-206, 207, hot gases, 2, 3 208, 215-216, 223, 240 transition-edge sensors, 214 technical risks and challenges, 8, 17, 207 stars, 64 technology development/design, 17, 158, suborbital, 150 206-207 supernovae, 61, 66 Wilcox Solar Observatory, 180 technology development, 112-113, 156 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, 17-18, X-ray Multi-mirror Mission-Newton 47, 69, 80, 99, 149, 168, 208, 210, 221 Observatory, 20, 59, 81, 133, 165, 166, 215