Antibody. A protein produced by the immune system that circulates in the blood, where it recognizes foreign substances such as bacteria or viruses, binds to them, and destroys them. (http://www.genome.gov/glossary/index.cfm?id=7)

Approval. Authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the marketing of a drug (under a New Drug Application), medical device (under a Premarket Approval Application), or biological product (under a Biologics Licensing Agreement) (see also Clearance; Humanitarian Device Exemption; New Drug Application; Premarket Approval application).

Autosomal dominant. A pattern of inheritance that involves a gene located on one of the numbered pairs of autosomal chromosomes (i.e., not the sex chromosomes X or Y) in human cells. Dominant refers to the effect of the specific genetic sequence present at this location (see Allele). An allele is dominant if only one of the paired autosomal chromosomes needs to contain it in order for the person to exhibit the associated trait (see also Autosomal recessive). (http://www.genome.gov/glossary/index.cfm?id=12)

Autosomal recessive. A pattern of inheritance that involves a gene located on one of the numbered pairs of autosomal chromosomes (i.e., not the sex chromosomes X or Y) in human cells. Recessive refers to the effect of the specific genetic sequence present at this location (see Allele). An allele is recessive if both of the paired autosomal chromosomes must contain it in order for the person to exhibit the associated trait (see also Autosomal dominant). (http://www.genome.gov/glossary/index.cfm?id=12)

Benefit. A positive or valued outcome of an action or event.

Biobanking. See Biorepository.

Bioengineering. Integration of the physical, chemical, mathematical, and computational sciences with engineering principles for the study of biology, medicine, and behavior. (http://www.nibib.nih.gov/HealthEdu/ScienceEdu/BioengDef)

Bioinformatics. “The application of computers to the collection, organization, analysis, manipulation, presentation, and sharing of biological data” (see also Translational bioinformatics). (NRC, 2000, p. 4)

Biologic or biological product. A “virus, therapeutic serum, toxin, antitoxin, vaccine, blood, blood component or derivative, allergenic product, or analogous product, or arsphenamine or derivative of arsphenamine (or any other trivalent organic arsenic compound), applicable to the prevention, treatment, or cure of a disease or condition of human beings.” (42 USC 262(1)) “Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic



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