Appendix D
Abbreviations and Acronyms

ALM Aircraft Laser Mapping

ALOS Advanced Land Observing Satellite

BARD Bay Area Regional Dense array

BFE Base Flood Elevation

CDDIS Crustal Dynamics Data Information System

CDP Crustal Dynamics Program at NASA

CHAMP Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload for Geo-scientific Research and Applications Program

CITRIS Scintillation and Tomography Receiver in Space

CNES Centre National d’Études Spatiales, the French space agency

COMPASS Chinese GNSS, currently in development (also known as Beidou)

CONUS Continental/Coterminus/Contiguous United States

CORS Continuously Operating Reference Stations

COSMIC Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate

DAAC Distributed Active Archive Center

DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DEM Digital Elevation Model

DESDynI Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice

DLR Deutsches Zentum für Luft-und Raumfahrt

DoD U.S. Department of Defense

DORIS Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite

DOSE Dynamics of the Solid Earth

DOT U.S. Department of Transportation



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Appendix D Abbreviations and Acronyms ALM Aircraft Laser Mapping ALOS Advanced Land Observing Satellite BARD Bay Area Regional Dense array BFE Base Flood Elevation CDDIS Crustal Dynamics Data Information System CDP Crustal Dynamics Program at NASA CHAMP Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload for Geo-scientific Research and Applications Program CITRIS Scintillation and Tomography Receiver in Space CNES Centre National d’Études Spatiales, the French space agency COMPASS Chinese GNSS, currently in development (also known as Beidou) CONUS Continental/Coterminus/Contiguous United States CORS Continuously Operating Reference Stations COSMIC Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate DAAC Distributed Active Archive Center DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DEM Digital Elevation Model DESDynI Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice DLR Deutsches Zentum für Luft-und Raumfahrt DoD U.S. Department of Defense DORIS Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite DOSE Dynamics of the Solid Earth DOT U.S. Department of Transportation 19

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10 APPENDiX D EDC EUROLAS Data Center EGM2008 Earth Gravitational Model 2008 ENSO El Ni�o/Southern Oscillation EOP Earth Orientation Parameters EPA Environmental Protection Agency ERS European Remote Sensing ESA European Space Agency ETS Episodic Tremor and Slip FAA Federal Aviation Administration FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FGCS Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee GDA Geocentric Datum of Australia GDGPS Global Differential GPS GPS Global Positioning System GEO Group on Earth Observation GEOINT Geospatial Intelligence GEOSS Global Earth Observation System of Systems GFO GeoSat Follow-on Mission GFZ GeoForschungs Zentrum GGOS Global Geodetic Observing System GIA Glacial isostatic adjustment GIS Geographic Information System GLONASS Russian GNSS, also known as GLObal’naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema GMSL Global Mean Sea Level GNSS Global Navigational Satellite System GOCE Gravity Field and Steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer GPS Global Positioning System GR General Relativity GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAIL Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory GRASP Geodetic Reference Antenna in Space GRAV-D Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum GRGS Groupe de Raecherche de Géodésie Spatiale HARNs High Accuracy Reference Networks HF High Frequency IAG International Association of Geodesy IAS International Altimeter Service ICESat Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite IDS International DORIS Service IERS International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service IGFS International Gravity Field Service IGN Institut Géographique National

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11 APPENDiX D IGS International GNSS Service ILRS International Laser Ranging Service IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ITRF International Terrestrial Reference Frame IVS International VLBI Service JERS-1 Japanese Earth Resources Satellite JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory kHz kiloHertz LBS Location-Based Services LEO Low-Earth Orbiting LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LLR Lunar Laser Ranging LoD Length of Day MHHW Mean Higher High Water MHW Mean High Water MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology NAD27 North American Datum of 1927 NAD83 North American Datum of 1983 NAREF North American Reference Frame NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NAVD88 North American Vertical Datum of 1988 NCALM National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency NGS National Geodetic Survey NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRC National Research Council NSDI National Spatial Data Infrastructure NSF National Science Foundation NSRS National Spatial Reference System OGCMs Ocean General Circulation Models PANGA Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array PBO Plate Boundary Observatory PGR Postglacial Rebound PO.DAAC Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center PSMSL Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level PNT Positioning, Navigation, and Timing POD Precise Orbit Determination PWV Perceptible Water Vapor SLR Satellite Laser Ranging SMAP Soil Moisture Active and Passive Satellite

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1 APPENDiX D SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Satellite SNARF Stable North American Reference Frame SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission STP U.S. Space Test Program SWOT Surface Water Ocean Topography TAI International Atomic Time (from the French, Temps Atomique International) TEC Total Electron Content TIGA GPS TIde GAge bench mark monitoring TWSTFT Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle UCAR University Corporation for Atmospheric Research UCSD/SIO University of California, San Diego/Scripps Institution of Oceanography UHF Ultra High Frequency USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USGS U.S. Geological Survey USNO U.S. Naval Observatory UTC Coordinated Universal Time UT1 Universal Time 1 VLBI Very Long Baseline Interferometry VLF Very Low Frequency WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System WDC World Data Center WGS-84 World Geodetic System 1984 WRMS Weighted Root-Mean Square