FIGURE 3.1 This schematic plots the precision of current geodetic applications as a function of the required time interval. The most demanding applications at the shortest time intervals include GNSS/GPS seismology and tsunami warning systems. At the longest time intervals, the most demanding applications include sea level change and geodynamics. Note that the positioning scale is in powers of 10 and that range of geodetic applications spans approximately nine orders of magnitude in the time scale. Consistency in connecting the longest to the shortest time scales requires an accurate and stable global terrestrial reference frame, which drives the most stringent requirements on the geodetic infrastructure.
* Plate motion, plate deformation, mountain building, mass transport, ice-sheet changes (using loading motion and gravity changes observed from space).
** Vertical surface motion from GNSS/GPS and InSAR for ground water management; water redistribution is monitored from space based on gravity measurements).
*** Water vapor and other meteorological information from GNSS/GPS ground stations and radio occultations in space.