socioeconomic status, or diagnoses, and engaging in caring relationships that transcend time, location, and circumstances. The following recommendations enhance the role of nursing in palliative care and enhance care for both patients and families:

  • Support the essential contributions of registered nurses and advance practice nurses within the evolving model of palliative care in the United States.

  • Support nursing education and research that advances the palliative care model.

  • Use the palliative care model as a framework when addressing the needs of the chronically ill population.

  • Ensure that nurses with palliative and end-of-life care expertise are part of local, state, and national health care advisory committees.

  • Ensure that representation on MedPac includes nursing with expertise in palliative and end-of-life care.

Nurses address the complexity of patient and family needs and to serve as cost-effective care coordinators or health care navigators for patients and families with both chronic and life-limiting illnesses, to reduce suffering and improve the quality of living and dying across the lifespan.

REFERENCES

AHA (American Hospital Association). (2007). AHA Hospital Statistics. Chicago, IL: American Hospital Association.

Campbell, M. L. (1998). Foregoing Life-Sustaining Therapy: How to Care for the Patient Who is near Death. Alisa Viejo, CA: American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

CAPC (Center to Advance Palliative Care). (2008). Improving Palliative Care in Nursing Homes. New York, NY: Center to Advance Palliative Care.

Coyne, P. (2009, November). Palliative care: Tricks of the trade. Oncology Nursing Society Advanced Practice Nursing Conference, Tampa, Florida.

Field, M. J., and Behrman, R. E. (Eds.) (2003). When children die: Improving palliative and end-of-life care for children and their families. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies Report. Washington DC: The National Academy Press.

Khatcheressian, J., Cassel, J. B., Lyckholm, L., Coyne, P., Hagenmueller, A., and Smith, T. J. (2005). Improving palliative and supportive care in cancer patients. Oncology, 19(10), 1365-1378, 1381-1382, 1384.

Morrison, R. S., and Meier, D. E. (2004) Clinical practice: palliative care. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(25), 2582-2590.

Morrison, R. S., Penrod, J. D., Cassel, B., Cassel, J. B., Caust-Ellenbogen, M., Litke, A., Spragens, L., and Meier, D. E. (2008). Cost savings associated with US hospital palliative care consultation programs. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(16), 1783-1790.

National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care. (2009). Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care, Second Edition. Retrieved from http://www.nationalconsensusproject.org



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