Index*

A

Academic careers

(see also Faculty)

case study, 184-185

educational attainment of RNs in, 25

first degree at entry into the profession and, 183-186

incentives for, 187, 188

RN workforce, 24, 388

salary disparities, 13, 186-187

Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses, 325, 364

Access to care, 27

regulatory barriers, 99, 102, 106, 107, 463

technology and, 64

Accountable care organizations (ACOs), 9, 30, 95, 131, 132, 148, 255-256, 277, 375-376, 380-381, 389-390, 391, 396, 559

Accreditation Commission for Midwifery Education, 325, 328 n.3, 340 n.11, 341 n.13, 362, 364

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, 201

Acute care

(see also Hospitals), 37

Agile Team Model, 414-415

practice transformation, 29-30

quality of, 27, 300, 485

recommendations, 416-417

technology and, 30, 415-417

workforce, 386-387, 388-389

Acute Care Forum on the Future of Nursing

highlights, 316-318

interdisciplinary collaboration, 301

key themes, 317

safety and quality of care, 300

site visits and solutions session, 317-318

technology, 300

testimony questions, 300-301

Admissions, inpatient

assessments by APRNs, 10, 278, 444, 473

care management programs and, 27, 377, 378, 379-380, 390, 395-396

graduation of nurses coordinated with, 264

to hospice or skilled nursing facility, 274, 278, 444, 473

palliative care models and, 425

readmissions, 27, 66, 70, 71, 379-380, 395-396, 416, 421

telehealth services and, 416, 421

Advanced dental hygiene practitioner, 107, 110

*

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Index* A quality of, 27, 300, 485 recommendations, 416-417 Academic careers (see also Faculty) technology and, 30, 415-417 case study, 184-185 workforce, 386-387, 388-389 educational attainment of RNs in, 25 Acute Care Forum on the Future of Nursing first degree at entry into the profession highlights, 316-318 and, 183-186 interdisciplinary collaboration, 301 incentives for, 187, 188 key themes, 317 RN workforce, 24, 388 safety and quality of care, 300 salary disparities, 13, 186-187 site visits and solutions session, 317-318 Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses, 325, 364 technology, 300 Access to care, 27 testimony questions, 300-301 regulatory barriers, 99, 102, 106, 107, 463 Admissions, inpatient technology and, 64 assessments by APRNs, 10, 278, 444, 473 Accountable care organizations (ACOs), 9, 30, care management programs and, 27, 377, 95, 131, 132, 148, 255-256, 277, 378, 379-380, 390, 395-396 375-376, 380-381, 389-390, 391, graduation of nurses coordinated with, 396, 559 264 Accreditation Commission for Midwifery to hospice or skilled nursing facility, 274, Education, 325, 328 n.3, 340 n.11, 278, 444, 473 341 n.13, 362, 364 palliative care models and, 425 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical readmissions, 27, 66, 70, 71, 379-380, Education, 201 395-396, 416, 421 Acute care (see also Hospitals), 37 telehealth services and, 416, 421 Agile Team Model, 414-415 Advanced dental hygiene practitioner, 107, practice transformation, 29-30 110 *Pages 375-642 are not printed in this report but can be found on the CD-ROM in the back of this book. 43

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44 INDEX Advanced Practice Nursing Consensus Work residencies, 124 Group, 327 safety and quality of care, 92, 98-99, Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) 111, 144, 490 (see also Certified registered scope of practice, 10, 23, 26, 43, 44, 55, nurse anesthetists; Certified 59, 70-71, 97-98, 101, 106, 112, nurse midwives; Clinical nurse 142, 248, 443, 473 specialists; Consensus model specialties, 23, 26, 41-42, 88 n.2, 97-98, for APRN regulation; Nurse 327, 328, 329 practitioners) visibility in surveys and coding, ACA and, 22-23 assessment, or benchmark schema, and access to care, 27-28, 98, 107, 108- 469-470 109, 249, 463, 490 workforce size, 23, 26, 327, 390 accountable care organizations, 132 Affordable Care Act (ACA) case studies, 107, 108-109 access to primary care, 22, 49, 54, 86, certification, 98, 328 88, 96, 108, 136, 257, 269 chronic disease management, 86, 121, accountable care organizations, 131, 132, 124, 332, 418-420, 452 148 competencies, 97, 197 Center for Medicare and Medicaid costs of education, 168, 169 Innovation, 131 earnings, 43 clinical training for APRNs, 124 economic value of, 486 community health centers, 131, 133 education and training, 41-42, 43, 44, coordination of care, 65, 148 98, 124, 144, 164, 168, 169, 194, demonstration projects and pilot 195, 196-197, 203, 328, 445-446, programs, 71, 239, 491 470-471 education funding, 491 funding for, 124, 470-471 faculty incentives, 187, 188 growing use of, 98 home visitation programs, 75 hospital privileges and medical staff insurance coverage for uninsured membership, 473 Americans, 1-2, 21, 49, 257, 269, insurance company policies, 9, 10, 71, 272 117 medical/health homes, 131, 132, 148 interprofessional collaboration, 98, 131, National Center for Workforce Analysis, 203, 226-227 9, 256, 262 licensure, 100,101-103, 327-328 National Health Care Workforce opposition to independent practice, 107- Commission, 9, 255, 256, 262, 265 108, 457-460 NMHCs, 131, 136 patient satisfaction, 114 nursing-related provisions, 22, 34 practice transformation, 10, 97, 98-103, reimbursement rates for nurses, 10, 278 106, 108-109, 112, 142, 144, 145, research priorities, 274 248 and scope-of-practice regulations, 29, 96, primary care, 10, 22-23, 55, 59, 88, 95, 106 132 structural changes in health care, 85, 86, production rates, 490 213 public awareness of, 112, 455 transitional care, 71, 148 recommendations, 9-11 workforce monitoring, 265 regulatory barriers, 5, 10, 59, 96, 97, African Americans, 55, 56, 57, 68, 128, 129, 99, 102, 103, 108, 144, 248, 444, 130, 138, 184, 199, 208, 228-229, 446-451 231, 232, 247, 429, 585, 631 reimbursement/payment policies, 9, 10, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 71, 102-103, 104, 115, 446, 449, 238, 239, 392, 394 471-472 Aging population, 48, 66

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4 INDEX AIDS (see HIV/AIDS) American College of Nurse-Midwives Alabama, 157, 356, 357, 358, 359 (ACNM), 325, 344 n.17, 358, 359, Alaska, 157 361, 362, 364 Alliance for APRN Credentialing, 341, 343 Division of Accreditation, 364 n.14, 344 n.17 American College of Nurse Practitioners, 325, Alper, Robyn, 176 358, 362, 364 Ambulatory care, 3, 23, 24, 25, 38, 43, 91, American College of Physicians, 557 119, 204, 205, 331, 382, 383, 386, American Dental Association, 107, 110, 206 387, 388, 389, 390, 393, 471, 486, American Holistic Nurses Association, 325, 490, 537 358, 364 American Academy of Family Physicians, American Immigration Council, 630 110-111, 134, 455 n.8, 557 American Indians/Alaska Natives, 128, 129, American Academy of Hospice and Palliative 208 Medicine, 424 American Medical Association (AMA), 105, American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 110, 455 n.8, 457, 458 n.7 (AANP), 325, 336, 358, 359, 362 American Midwifery Certification Board, 197, American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 325, 358, 359 Certification Program, 325, 344 American Nurses Association (ANA), 27, 109, n.17, 358, 359, 361, 362, 366 171, 208, 245, 325, 329, 338, 344, American Academy of Nursing, 245 354, 358, 361, 362, 364, 366, 371 American Academy of Pediatrics, 134, 457, American Nurses Credentialing Center 458 (ANCC), 196, 325, 336, 344, 358, American Assembly for Men in Nursing, 209 359, 362, 364, 366 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Magnet Recognition Program, 171, 244 (AACN), 121, 123, 135, 170, 171- American Organization of Nurse Executives 172, 182, 188, 194-195, 198 n.15, (AONE), 171-172, 235, 245, 358, 200, 206, 224, 245, 287, 325, 343- 359, 361, 362, 364, 366, 485, 528, 344, 358, 359, 361, 364, 366, 496, 531, 586 507, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 519, American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 325, 528, 532, 533, 544, 552, 561 358, 362, 364, 366 American of Association of Colleges of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Osteopathic Medicine, 206 (ARRA), 133, 137, 375, 472 American Association of Colleges of American Society of Anesthesiologists, 110, Pharmacy, 206 457, 458 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Anesthetists/anesthesiology (see Certified (AACN), 325, 358, 359 registered nurse anesthetists) American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Arizona, 120, 157, 211, 599, 603, 614 Certification Corporation, 325, 344 Arkansas n.17 Aging Initiative, 226-227 American Association of Legal Nurse practice regulations, 157 Consultants, 325 State Board of Nursing, 325, 355, 356, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, 357, 359 325, 358, 359, 361, 362, 364, 366 Armenia, 575 American Association of Retired Persons Ascension Health, 211 (AARP), 106, 251, 286 Asian or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, American Board of Internal Medicine 128, 129 Foundation, 557 Association of Academic Health Centers, 169, American Board of Nursing Specialties 394, 462-463, 552, 560 (ABNS), 325, 328 n.4, 337 n.6, 340 Association of American Medical Colleges n.10, 358, 362, 364 (AAMC), 203, 206, 287 Accreditation Council, 359 Association of Schools of Public Health, 206

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4 INDEX Association of Teachers of Preventive Bachelor’s of science in nursing (BSN; see Medicine, 560 also Undergraduate education) Associate’s degree in nursing accelerated, second-degree program, 44, advantages, 489 165, 168, 233, 369, 371, 406, 484, barriers to program admission, 166 507, 523 BSN graduates relative to, 505-506 ADN graduates relative to, 505-506 case studies, 180-181, 232 ADN transition to, 7, 12, 39, 40, 44, 130, costs, 168, 370-371, 489 166, 171, 173, 174-175, 177, 183- data needs, 482, 508 186, 187, 208, 281, 406, 487, 488, earnings, 43, 171, 172 506, 507 education/preparation, 40, 43, 44, 165, applications for admission, 31, 193 166, 168, 177, 232, 247, 369, 370- barriers to meeting educational needs, 371, 553, 578, 579 166, 179-193 employment settings, 25 capacity building for, 176-178, 180-181, ethnic minorities, 207, 208, 232 196, 210-211, 482, 484, 538, 539 faculty, 187, 188, 371 case studies and profiles, 60-63, 73-74, foreign programs, 578-579 174-176, 180-181, 184-185, 192- geographic differences, 178 193, 204-205, 232-233 and leadership positions, 247 community college programs, 173, 174, licensure exam, 372, 488-489 175-176, 177-178, 180-181, 371, physician opinions of, 171 406, 482, 489, 492, 505, 519, 538, practice regulations, 371 539-540 qualified applicants not accepted, 182 community health curriculum, 122 recommendations, 508 costs, 168, 371 roles and responsibilities, 43 data needs, 482 state preferences for investment in, 488- Diploma nursing program transition, 12, 489, 506 44, 166, 171, 173, 187, 281, 370, statistics, 167, 171, 178, 182, 186, 372 518, 597 transition to higher degree programs, 7, earnings, 43, 171, 172, 187 12, 39, 40, 44, 130, 166, 173, 174- economic value to institutions, 485-486 175, 177, 183-186, 187, 208, 281, education/preparation, 40-41, 43, 44, 488-489, 506, 507 165, 369, 371, 512, 524, 608, 612 Association of Faculties of Pediatric Nurse employment settings, 25, 171, 175 Practitioners, 325, 344 n.17, 362, faculty, 173, 179, 182-188, 210, 211, 364, 366 371, 440, 480, 484, 486, 487-488, Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric, and 489 Neonatal Nurses, 325, 358, 359, foreign requirements and programs, 489, 362, 364, 365 567, 568-569, 571, 572, 576, 579, Austin, Mary, 69 583, 584-585, 590, 591, 592, 595, Australia, 190, 192, 573, 590, 598, 603, 607, 596, 599, 600, 608, 610, 612, 615, 628 617, 618, 620, 628 Ayers, Lisa, 62-63 funding for programs, 12, 175-176, 281, 482, 484-489, 492 gender diversity, 507 B geographic differences, 178 internship/residency, 122, 123-124, 148, Baby Boom generation, 48, 125, 259, 387, 424 513, 559 Baccalaureate degree (see Bachelor’s of leadership training, 224 science in nursing; Undergraduate licensure exam, 372 education)

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4 INDEX C as minimum requirement to practice, 169-178, 287, 371, 409-410, 412, Caceres, Billy, 233 435, 479, 485, 524, 553, 568-569 California minorities, 130, 207, 208, 232-233, 585 nurse workforce, 61, 211, 382, 383, 583, need for, 169-178 590, 596, 599, 610, 612 nursing school capacity, 487 nursing education, 176, 181, 265 physician opinions of, 171 On Lok program, 65 prerequisites, 524 scope-of-practice regulation, 111, 157 qualified applicants not accepted, 130, California Medical Association, 111 182, 193, 487, 537 California Society of Anesthesiologists, 111 and quality and outcomes of care, 169- Cameroons, 573 170, 406, 485-486, 505-506, 512, Campaign for Nursing’s Future, 125 538 Campbell, Margaret, 425 recommendations, 12, 13, 281-282, 412, Canada, 203, 485, 553, 568, 569 n.5, 572, 574, 481, 482, 484, 508, 524, 559 575, 577, 580, 582, 590, 599-603, roles and responsibilities, 41, 43, 67, 170 607, 608-609 school nurses, 435 Care in the Community Forum shortage-related impacts, 485, 486-489 highlights, 124, 318-320 standardizing education, 489 key themes, 318-319 statistics, 166-167, 178, 186, 196, 372 site visits and solutions session, titles of nurses from other countries, 577 319-320 transition to higher degree programs, 7, testimony questions, 302-303 12, 13, 39, 40-41, 43, 44, 123-124, Care management models (see also Health 130, 170, 173-176, 177, 181, 185- coaches) 186, 204-205, 208, 281, 282, 480, accountable care organizations, 9, 30, 95, 484, 487, 488-489, 506-507, 518, 131, 132, 148, 255-256, 277, 375- 523, 524, 538, 597 376, 380-381, 389-390, 391, 396, trends, 166-167, 196 559 workforce goal and plans for achieving impact of health care reform, 376-381 it, 172-177, 212, 412 information technology and, 378, 381, Basin, Basilia, 174-175 382, 384-386 Becnel, Tina, 74 patient-centered medical homes, 94, 117, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, 51 132, 134-135, 248, 377-379, 381, Benner, Patricia, 287 511 Bessent, Hattie, 208 payment policy and, 378, 380, 386, 389, Best on Board, 243 392 Beverly, Claudia J., 225 recommendations, 391-396 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan successful features of programs, 377 Foundation, 204 transitional care, 24, 27, 37, 66, 67, 70- Board of Certification for Emergency Nursing, 71, 86, 94, 121, 124, 132, 148, 199, 358, 359, 364 276-277, 375, 378, 380, 381, 388, Bologna Process, 569, 572-573 389, 390, 393, 395-396, 541, 545, Boston College, 88 557, 559 Brazil, 577 Caribbean, 614-618 Breakthrough to Nursing initiative, 232 Caribbean Community and Common Market, Bronx Community College, 247 628 Brown, Gordon, 287 Capps, Lois, 247 Bureau of Indian Affairs, 103 Carmona, Richard, 247 Bureau of Primary Health Care, 430 Carnegie, Elizabeth, 228-229 Burke, Sheila, 246-247 Bush Administration, 133, 247

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4 INDEX Carnegie Foundation, 121, 164-165, 287, 386, regulations, 96, 108, 248, 328, 330, 331, 395, 480, 484, 512, 517, 523, 536, 332, 333, 338 537, 538, 541, 542, 544, 545, 546, reimbursement rates/policies, 58, 104, 116 551 safety and quality of care, 28, 56-58, 97, Carondelet Health Network, 120, 211 443, 533 Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 120, 146-147 scope-of-practice, 26, 41-42, 43, 96, 112, Center for Collaborative Intervention 116, 248, 331 Research, 184 support for expanded scope of practice, Center for the Health Professions, 199 112 Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, workforce size and distribution, 26, 257, 11, 131, 279, 379, 392, 462 381-382 Center to Advance Palliative Care, 424, 425 Certified nursing assistants (CNAs), 38, 75, Center to Champion Nursing in America, 176, 591 251, 286 Certified registered nurse anesthetists Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CRNAs), 23, 88 n.2, 327 (see 418 also Advanced practice registered Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, nurses) 12, 27, 105, 111, 238, 246, 247, certification, 196, 197, 336 279, 280 (see also Medicare) earnings, 43, 188 Care Transitions Project, 379-380 education and training, 43, 44, 196, 197, education funding, 124, 471, 490-491 339, 509 National Provider Indicator data, 262 licensure, 101, 330, 332, 333, 336 recommendations for, 9, 10 Medicare/Medicaid regulations, 109, reimbursement system, 115 111, 471 and scope-of-practice restrictions, 5, 9, opposition to independent practice, 457, 111, 145 458 technology development incentives, 137 practice settings, 41 testing payment and service delivery public awareness of, 455 models, 131 regulations, 96, 101, 108, 109, 111, 327, Centura Health At Home, 420-421 328, 330, 332, 333, 335, 444, 448, Certification programs, evaluation criteria and 454 APRNs, 349-353 reimbursement for services, 471 Certified nurse midwives, 23, 327 (see also safety and quality of care, 97, 533 Advanced practice registered nurses) scope-of-practice, 26, 41, 43, 96, 108, and access to care, 116, 506 109, 111, 443, 444, 448, 454, 455 case study, 56-58 specialty area, 335 certification, 196, 197, 333 workforce size, 26 complexity of services, 88, 90 CGFNS International and cost containment, 28, 97, 443 creation, 582 n.8 demand for, 506 Credentials Evaluation Service, 640 earnings, 43, 188 Credentials Verification Service, 640 education and training, 43, 44, 196, 333, description of, 640 340 n.11, 509 joint CGFNS/Excelsior College study, 587 foreign perspective, 572 Qualifying Exam®, 574, 618 licensure, 332, 333, 338 survey/study data, 566-567, 568, 582, malpractice insurance, 58 583, 584, 585, 589 as Medicaid primary care case managers, Validity Studies, 574 471 VisaScreen Program, 590, 596, 599, 603, opposition to independent practice, 111 607-608, 612, 613, 618, 624, 631, primary care, 381-382 640 public awareness of, 455 Changemaker program, 130

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4 INDEX Charge to committee, 2, 3 demand for, 506 Chater, Shirley, 247 earnings, 43, 188 Chief nursing officers (CNOs), 8, 52, 69, 133, education and training, 43, 44, 196, 197, 134, 235-238, 251, 410 339, 509, 518, 558 Children’s Health Fund, 419 licensure, 332, 333, 338, 339 Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, regulations, 96, 108, 327, 328, 330, 331, 424 332, 333, 338, 444 Children’s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, 230 safety and quality of care, 443, 533 China, 566, 575, 578, 607, 610-612, 620, scope-of-practice, 26, 41, 43, 96, 112, 621-622 331, 443, 444 Chow, Marilyn, 91 specialty areas, 41, 335 Christopher, Mary Ann, 236-237 workforce size and distribution, 26, 533 Christus St. Michael Health System, 226 Clinton Administration, 247 Chronic disease management (see also Home Clostridium difficile, 70 health; Hospice; Palliative care; Coleman’s Care Transitions Model, 380 Transitional care) Collaboration (see Interprofessional access to care, 27, 483 collaboration) accountable care organizations and, 132 Colleagues in Caring, 401 APRNs and, 86, 121, 124, 332, 418-420, Colorado, 75, 141, 157, 359, 420, 430, 463 452 Columbia, 575, 577 challenges, 47-48 Columbia University, 532 community health services, 237, 246, Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education 272, 318, 319, 389, 418-420, 450 (CCNE), 12, 13-14, 203, 281, 282, continuity of care, 402 325, 328 n.3, 341 n.13, 344 n.17, coordination of care, 66, 87, 94, 97, 483, 359, 362, 364, 366, 509, 510, 513 484, 486, 556, 557 Commonwealth Fund, 251 costs of, 248 Commonwealth Secretariat, 634 education of nurses for, 170, 175, 200, Community and public health care (see also 213, 395, 485, 540, 543 Care in the Community Forum; guided care, 94-95 Primary care) information technology and, 415-416, access to care, 28, 30, 64 420-421 case study, 62-63 intensive primary care, 419 chronic disease management, 237, 246, medical/health homes, 133, 377-379 272, 318, 319, 389, 418-420, 450 models, 376-381, 418-422, 452 competencies needed to practice, 6, 39 nurse-managed health centers, 139, 420 defined, 59 patient-centered care, 86 economic value of nurses, 62-63, 64 recommendations, 421 education, 25, 40 residency programs, 121, 124, 545 essential community providers, 473 self-management, 95, 428-429 evidence-based models, 438 team approach, 97, 206, 378, 428-429, foreign-educated nurses, 576 521, 554, 557 growth in, 381-382 transitional care, 276-277, 380, 389, home visitation programs, 73-75, 438-439 395-396 leadership, 234-235 VA services, 91 need for, 59, 62-64 Cigna, 93 nurses, 6, 25, 40, 28, 30, 39, 55, 59, 62- City University of New York, 176 63, 64, 234-235 Clinical nurse leaders (CNLs), 44, 72, 135, 180 practice settings, 23, 24, 39, 59 Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), 23, 88 n.2 principles for change, 59, 62-64 and access to care, 506 safety and quality of care, 6, 64 certification, 196, 197, 333, 334, 339 telehealth services, 64

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0 INDEX VA programs, 64 Competencies workforce and infrastructure, 24, 59, 62- clinical performance, 14 64, 119, 382 community and public health, 6 Community and public health settings, 3, 23, geriatrics, 6 24, 38, 64, 122, 131, 133, 257, 319, for leadership roles, 6, 8, 223-224, 382, 430, 490 226-227 Community Care of North Carolina, 379 policy related, 6 Community Health Center, Inc., 124 traditional, 24 Community college programs Competency-based education ADNs, 40, 44, 166, 232, 247, 370-371, assessing competencies, 32, 201-202 553, 578, 579 career transition program, 204-205 attrition/completion rates, 212 continuing education, 13-14, 32, 202, BSNs, 173, 177-178, 180-181, 371, 482, 204-205 489, 492, 505, 519, 538, 539-540 core competencies, 31, 200-201 cost of education, 370-371 evaluation of programs, 14 curriculum standardization, 406, 407, interprofessional education, 7, 13, 14, 31, 479, 539-543 32, 203, 206 Diploma programs, 44 lifelong learning and continuing funding for nursing education, 489, 491, competence, 13-14, 31, 202-206 492 recommendations, 13-14 importance of, 538 Congress, recommendations to, 9-10, 278 international affiliations with, 579 Congressional Budget Office, 92, 377 internship/residency, 122 Congressional Nursing Caucus, 247 interprofessional collaboration barriers, Connecticut, 157 522 Connecticut Hospice, 423 length of programs, 523 Consensus model for APRN regulation LPNs, 39, 44 accreditation of education programs, recommendations, 538, 539-540 339-340 RNs, 23, 39, 44, 166 APRN Consensus Group, 341, 343-345 university partnerships with, 173, 174- APRN Joint Dialogue Group, 327, 341, 175, 406, 479, 505, 519, 536, 538, 345-346, 361 539-540 certification, 340, 349-353 Community Health Accreditation Program, certified nurse-midwife, 327, 328, 330, 12, 280 331, 332, 333, 338, 340 n.11 Community health centers, 133 certified nurse practitioner, 328-329, Como Convivir Con Su Artritis (How to Live 330, 332, 333-334, 335, 336, 338, With Your Arthritis), 428-429 339 Compensation/reimbursement policies, 22 certified registered nurse anesthetist, ACA and, 10, 278 327, 328, 330, 332, 333, 335, 336, APRNs, 9, 10, 71, 115 339 bundled payments, 116 clinical nurse specialist, 327, 328, 330, CNMs, 58, 104, 116 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 338, 339 CRNAs, 471 communication strategies, 341 fee-for-service, 10, 92, 103, 115, 116, definition of APRN, 329-332 278, 465 education requirements, 106, 334-335, global payments, 116 340-341 Medicaid, 471 endorsing organizations, 325-326 NPs, 102-103, 104, 110 n.17, 115, 116- essential elements, 329, 346 117, 389, 431, 464, 465, 471 evidence-based models, 428-430 primary care, 10, 117 foundational requirements, 338-341 state variation in, 4, 102-103 goals, 106

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1 INDEX grandfathering, 338 Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia historical background, 342-346 Educational Programs, 325, 328 implementation strategies, 338-342 n.3, 340 n.11, 341 n.13, 344 n.17, invited organizations, 362-363 358, 359, 362, 364, 366 LACE structure and processes, 341-342 Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists, licensure, 338-339 359 NCSBN APRN Committee, 342-343, Council on Recertification of Nurse 355-357 Anesthetists, 359 NCSBN APRN Roundtable Organization, Coyne, Patrick, 425 358-360 Critical care nurses, 39, 146, 425, 584, 587, overview, 328-329 631 participating organizations, 364-366 Curran, Connie, 243 process example, 367 Curriculum recommendations, 430-431 community health, 122 roles and population foci, 337 coordination of care, 556-559 roundtable organization attendance lists, dedicated education units, 190, 192-193, 358-360 211, 410, 412, 513, 544 specialties, 335-336, 354 development, 7, 13, 190-191 timeline for implementation, 342 global health, 567, 570 titling, 332, 334 health policy, 412, 560, 559-562 underlying assumptions, 345-346 innovations, 409-413 Work Group meetings, 366 international models, 567, 569-570 Consortium for Children with Complex interprofessional/transdisciplinary, 410, Medical Needs, 230 555, 558, 559 Continuity of care, 402 for leadership development, 8, 11, 14, Convenient care clinics (see Retail/convenient 241-244, 494-504 care) recommendations, 411-412 Cooper, Barbara Medoff, 143 science and research as part of, 411, 412 Coordination of care (see also Care standardization, 406, 407, 479, 489, 539- management) 543, 569-570 and access to care, 27, 30 technology-infused, 410, 411-412 acute care settings, 66 case studies, 68-71 D chronic disease management, 66, 87, 94, 97, 483, 484, 486, 556, 557 Daines, Richard, 23 education in, 556-559 Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and innovations by nurses, 94 Clinical Practice, 380 Medicare Coordinated Care Data for workforce planning Demonstration program, 66 gaps in, 8-9, 259-263 Medicare Prescription Drug Act and, 377 HRSA registered nurse sample survey, 15 nursing practice model and, 386 infrastructure, 9, 14-15, 255, 256, 262, principles for change, 65-66 265, 283 Staff Nurse Care Coordination model, key message, 4, 8, 29, 33-34, 255 65-66 priorities, 9 teamlet model, 558 recommendations, 14-15, 393-394, 283 Transitional Care Model, 66, 70-71, 276- standards, 15 277, 380, 557 state collection of, 14-15 Cost of nursing education, 168-169, 370-371 Delaware, 157 Council for Higher Education Accreditation, Demographic challenges, 124-131 328 n.3, 334, 337, 341 aging workforce, 125-127

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2 INDEX Denmark, 571, 573 RNs, 23, 25, 39, 40, 166, 167, 171, 172, Department of Defense, 392 173, 186, 370, 372, 518, 576, 584- Department of Education, 13, 281, 328 n.3, 585, 620 334, 337, 341 n.13, 470, 491, 492 roles and responsibilities, 43 Department of Health and Human Services, statistics, 167, 178, 186, 187, 208, 370, 71, 131, 171, 247, 280, 392, 491 372, 491, 518, 608, 620, 621 Department of Justice Antitrust Division, 10, and transition to higher degree programs, 279 12, 44, 166, 171, 173, 187, 281, Department of Labor, 13, 14, 15, 282, 283, 370, 518, 597 284, 486, 582 n.8 Disaster services, 28, 235 Department of Veterans Affairs Discharge nurses, 93-94 analysis of workforce needs, 256 Diversity of population, 48 community care, 64, 91, 132-135 Doctoral degrees in nursing nursing practice transformation, 72, 91- accelerated programs, 265, 322, 405, 92, 132-135 482, 484, 488, 489 quality of care, 170 and access to care, 195 Dermatology Nurses Association, 325, 364 barriers to meeting educational needs, Dermatology Nursing Certification Board, 325 199, 518-519 Detroit Receiving Hospital, 425 clinical training, 197, 199 DeVry, 405 costs, 168 Diabetes, 47, 51, 65, 67, 68, 70, 92 n.6, 94, Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP), 7, 112, 114, 134, 139, 184, 249, 376, 42, 43, 44, 168, 183, 188, 194-195, 418, 420, 432 196, 197, 411, 412, 480, 508-510, Diagnosis-related groups, 247 511, 519-520, 532, 559 Diploma nursing programs Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (PhD), advantage, 370 7, 42, 43, 44, 130, 168, 183, 188, data needs, 508 194, 195, 196, 198, 265, 403, 411, demographic characteristics, 178, 370 480, 484, 487-488, 489, 517-521, earnings, 43, 171, 172, 187 532, 561-562 education/preparation time, 43, 44, 165, earnings, 43, 172, 186-187, 282, 529 369, 523, 572, 599, 615 education/preparation time, 41, 43, 44, employment settings, 25 187, 194-195, 196, 197, 199, 509- faculty, 187 510, 532, 599 foreign-educated nurses in U.S., 583, employment settings, 25, 42, 185, 194 584-585, 608, 621 enrollments, 532 foreign programs, 571, 572, 573-574, faculty, 13, 164, 170, 179, 183, 185, 188, 575, 576, 577, 578, 579-580, 590- 194, 195, 197, 265, 276, 282, 480, 591, 596, 597, 599-600, 604, 608, 484, 487-488, 489, 519, 520-521, 610, 614-615, 618, 619, 620, 628 529 freestanding schools of nursing, 523 foreign-educated nurses, 568, 608, 621, funding, 12, 124, 176, 280, 491, 520 628 hospital-based, 124, 166, 369, 491, 518, funding for programs, 13, 282, 481, 484, 522, 615 520 licensure exam, 372, 573-574, 608 health policy curricula, 560, 561-562 LPNs, 166, 372 internships, 183 minorities, 208, 370 interprofessional collaboration, 555 number of programs, 166-167 need for, 164, 170, 212, 411 phasing out, 12, 175-176, 280 pathways/transition to, 7, 13, 44, 282, practice regulations, 574, 580 480, 482, 484, 488, 489, 507, 509- proportion of nurses, 503 510, 518 recommendations, 12, 280, 281, 508 prerequisites, 409

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3 INDEX and quality and outcomes of care, 195 cost-effectiveness, 485-486 racial/ethnic diversity, 207, 208, 233, diversity issues, 7, 12, 207-209 276, 281 employment settings by, 23, 25 recommendations, 13, 281-282, 411, 412, entrepreneurial professional 481, 482, 484, 511, 519-520, 559, development, 11 562 federal funding, 10, 13, 484, 490-491, 492 researchers, 164, 194, 195, 197-198, 276, HEET program, 211-212 412, 517-518, 532 incentives for continuing, 12, 31, 173, roles and responsibilities, 7, 43, 195, 187, 212, 304, 305, 438, 440, 482, 196, 197 484, 489, 492, 520, 524 specialist preparation, 480, 508-509 interdisciplinary, 406 statistics, 178, 186, 196 interprofessional care, 6, 7, 13, 14, 31, shortage-related impacts, 197-198 32, 165, 198, 200, 201, 203, 206, workforce size and distribution, 178, 270, 276, 281, 282, 390, 396, 479, 186, 194, 195, 517-518 480, 481, 482, 496, 508, 513, 517, Dole, Robert, 246 521-523, 539, 540-541, 545, 551, Dominican Republic, 575 552, 553-556, 558, 561, 563 Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, 224 interstate collaborations, 406-407 Drexel University, 138-139, 320 key message, 4, 6, 29, 30-32, 34, 163 Duke Translational Nursing Institute, 532-533 for leadership roles and opportunities, 8, Dumas, Rhetaugh, 247 12, 14 Dworkin, Darren, 147 need for, 4, 6-7 partnerships for, 401-407, 412, 527-529, 537, 579 E pathways, 6, 7, 12 policy priorities, 483-493 Eastern, Central and Southern African College recommendations, 10, 12-14, 407, of Nursing, 628 411-412, 484, 508, 511, 513-514, Eastern Europe, 572, 575, 578 528-529, 559 Economic value of nurses research, 198, 276 accounting practices and, 445 and safety and quality of care, 568 BSNs, 485-486 service delivery models, 527-529 community and public health nurses, 62- technology applications, 7, 12 63, 64, 75 transformational partnerships, 404-408 patient-centered care, 54, 57 Veterans Affairs Nursing Academy, seamless, coordinated care, 65 210-211 Edge Runner program, 245 Education Forum on the Future of Nursing Education and training (see also Competency- forum questions and discussions, 304-305 based education; Curriculum; highlights of forum, 320-322 Education Forum on the Future key themes, 320-321 of Nursing; Graduate nursing site visits and solutions session, 321-322 education; Undergraduate nursing testimony questions, 304-305 education; International education Egypt, 579 models) Electronic health records (EHRs), 94, 124, accreditation criteria, 470 134, 137, 140, 141, 142, 143, 381, capacity building, 7, 264-265 384, 385, 386, 402, 415, 419, 438, Carondolet Health Network, 211 472, 513, 558 challenges, 390, 484-484 11th Street Family Health Services, 138-139, chronic disease management, 170, 175, 320 200, 213, 395, 485, 540, 543 Emergency Nurses Association, 325, 358, 359, consortium programs, 7 362, 364

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2 INDEX National Council of State Boards of Nursing National Voluntary Consensus Standards for (NCSBN), 405-406 Nursing-Sensitive Care, 27 APRN Committee, 342-343, 345, 355- Naylor, Mary D., 66, 70-71, 90, 275-276, 277, 357, 361 380, 557 APRN definition, 329 Nebraska, 159 APRN Roundtable Organization, 350-360 Nepal, 573, 577 competency assessment, 201, 202 Nevada, 159, 357 and Consensus Model for APRN New Hampshire, 116, 159 Regulation, 324, 325, 326, 327, New Jersey, 159, 166, 236-237, 265, 370, 341, 342-343, 344 n.17, 345, 361, 419-420, 583 362, 365, 366, 445 New Mexico, 159, 176, 603, 610, 618 criteria for APRN certification programs, New York, 62-63, 64, 75, 122, 143, 160, 176, 340, 349-353 581, 583, 590, 596, 599, 603, 610, licensing exam, 17, 167-168, 372, 574, 614, 640 596 New York University, 233 Model Nursing Practice Act and Model New Zealand, 571, 598, 603, 628 Nursing Administrative Rules, 10, Nigeria, 575, 579, 582, 612, 613, 614, 616, 278 621, 622 transition-to-practice model, 121, 513, Nightingale, Florence, 87, 369, 401, 483 544 North American Free Trade Agreement, 581, National Database of Nursing Quality 599, 623-624, 625 Indicators, 27 North Carolina, 105, 122, 160, 176, 355, 356, National Gerontological Nursing Association, 358, 379, 506 326, 363 North Dakota, 160, 355, 371, 420, 505 National Health Care Workforce Commission Northwest Colorado Visiting Nurse (NHWC), 9, 14, 255, 256, 262, Association, 430 265, 283 Northwest Health Foundation, 204 National Hospice and Palliative Care Nurse–Family Partnership (NFP), 28, 73-75, Organization, 423, 424 438-439 National Institute of Mental Health, 247 Nurse Licensure Compact, 628 National Institute of Nursing Research, 239, Nurse-managed health centers, 28, 64, 102, 429, 492, 520 117, 131, 133, 136, 138-139, 189, National Institutes of Health, 239, 276, 392 249, 290, 382, 418-419, 420, 429- National League for Nursing (NLN), 171-172, 430, 471-472, 473 179, 182, 188, 189-190, 198 n.15, Nurse practitioners (NPs; see also Advanced 203, 224, 245, 326, 363, 365 practice registered nurses) National League for Nursing Accrediting and access to care, 106-107, 108-109, Commission (NLNAC), 12, 13-14, 375-376, 382, 430, 463 224, 281, 282, 326, 328 n.3, 341 case studies and profiles, 60-61, 68-69, n.13, 358, 359, 361, 363, 365, 366, 108-109, 134-135, 226-227 513 certification/certified, 197, 328-329, 330, National Organization of Nurse Practitioner 332, 333-334, 335, 336, 338, 339, Faculties, 326, 343-344, 359, 361, 508 363, 365, 366, 509 complexity of services, 90 National Quality Forum, 27, 392, 470, 557 consumer designation as provider, 465 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses coordinating care, 66, 67, 68-69, 92-93, (NSSRN), 26, 30, 128, 178, 195 378-379 n.12, 369, 382, 487, 583, 584-586, and cost containment, 430, 464, 465, 631 508, 511 National Student Nurses Association, 230, cost of education, 169 232, 233, 234 data needs and collection on, 9, 262, 508

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3 INDEX demand for, 381-382, 384, 508, 510 support for expanded scope of practice, demographic characteristics, 127 112-114, 287, 457, 458, 462, 463, earnings, 43, 186-187, 188 464, 552 education and training, 43, 44, 98, 124, Veterans Administration, 91-92, 133 130, 169, 196, 197, 342, 367, 403, workforce size and distribution, 26, 88, 406, 480, 482, 506, 508, 509, 510, 89, 91, 106-107, 257, 381, 466, 511, 516 508, 533 funding, 403, 510 Nurse Practitioners in Women’s Health, 326, as health coaches, 67, 465 328 n.3, 341 n.13, 344 n.17, 358, interprofessional collaboration, 92-93, 362, 363, 365, 366 97, 133, 134-135, 429, 508, 521 Nursing Alliance for Quality Care, 240-241 leadership roles, 92, 117, 134-135, 429 Nursing assistants (NAs), 38, 43, 107, 146, licensure, 338 271, 591, 595 Medicare/Medicaid regulations, 103, Nursing care providers 104, 115, 471, 472-473 practice settings, 38 nurse-managed health centers, 102, 117 types, 38-44 opposition to independent practice, 110- workforce projections, 258-259 111, 113, 457 Nursing Education Loan Repayment Program, palliative care consultants, 425 529 in patient-centered medical homes, 102, Nursing Educational Xchange, 406 117, 134-135 Nursing for Life, 204-205 primary care, 55, 59, 88, 91-93, 97, 98, Nursing home/extended care facilities, 23, 24, 102, 108-109, 116-117, 134-135, 25, 119, 425 257, 287, 332, 336, 367, 375-376, Nursing practice (see also Practice 378-379, 381, 402, 419, 429, 430, transformation) 431, 433-434, 435, 471-382, 463, continuum of care, 4, 23-24 465, 472-473, 482, 506, 508, 510, Nursing Quality Research Initiative, 239 511, 533 Nursing specialties, ANA criteria for public awareness of, 112, 455 recognition of, 354 (see also recommendations, 430, 431, 435, 480, individual specialties) 482, 508, 511 regulations, 5, 61, 96, 98-103, 116-117, O 157-161, 328-329, 332, 333-334, 336, 338, 389, 419, 462, 463, 465, Obama administration, 75, 91, 109, 247, 375, 472-473, 511 382-383 reimbursement rates/policies, 102, 104, Obesity, 40, 48, 61, 409 110 n.17, 115, 116-117, 389, 431, O’Brien, Ruth A., 75 464, 465, 471 Occupational/employee health nurses, 24, 28, researchers, 92 39, 119 residency, 124 Office of Personnel Management (OPM), 5, in retail-based health clinics, 112 10, 105, 145, 279, 472 safety and quality of care, 97, 428, 429, Office of Technology Assessment, 97, 427 510, 533 Ohio, 160, 166-167, 370 at school-based health centers, 59, 60-61, Oklahoma, 160 130, 433-434, 435 O’Neil, Edward, 199 scope-of-practice, 5, 26, 41, 43, 55, 96, On Lok program, 65, 558 98-103, 116-117, 332, 430, 443, Oncology nurses, 40, 184, 185, 333, 335, 339 449, 465, 472-473, 511 Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation, specialties, 41, 98, 197, 335, 336, 367, 326, 358, 359, 363, 365, 366 508 Oncology Nursing Society, 326, 363, 365

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4 INDEX 100,000 Lives Campaign, 67, 495-496 Patient self-management, 51, 378, 428-429 Oregon Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act education innovations, 173, 174-176, (see Affordable Care Act) 190, 200, 406, 488, 505, 519, 537, Pauly, Mark, 239 539-540 Pediatric Nursing Certification Board, 326, scope-of-practice regulations, 160 344 n.17, 358, 359, 363, 365, 366 State Board of Nursing, 357 Pelosi, Nancy, 247 Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education, Pennsylvania, 66, 160, 166-167, 370, 382, 173, 174-176, 200, 505, 537, 383, 463, 610, 612 539-540 Chamber of Commerce, 250 Oregon Health & Science University, 174-176 Geisinger Health System, 91, 92-93, 95, Orthopedic Nurses Certification Board, 326 131, 380 Overton Brooks VA Medical Center, 134 Rx for PA, 112, 247, 248-249, 250 Overton-McCoy, Amyleigh, 226-227 State Board of Nursing, 365 Perkins funds, 482, 491, 492 Perioperative/operating room nurses, 40, 631 P Peru, 575, 577 Pew Health Professions Commissions, 551 Pain management, 444, 448 Taskforce on Health Care Workforce Palliative care (see Hospice and palliative care) Regulation, 461, 465 Palliative Care Center of the Bluegrass, 425 Philippines/Filipinos, 566, 568, 571, 573, 574, Palliative Care Leadership Centers, 425 575, 579, 581, 582, 585, 590-595, Pappas, Mary, 60 596, 599, 603, 607, 608-609, 623 Partners Investing in Nursing’s Future, 204 PhotoVoice, 231 Partnerships outside nursing, 250-251 Physical therapists, 110 Patient-centered care Physician assistants (PAs), 9, 67, 88, 89, 90, access to care and, 51, 54 98, 104, 111, 112, 169, 248, 257, barriers to, 27-28 259, 273, 381, 382, 462, 463, 464, case studies, 51, 52-53, 56-58 465, 508, 552, 560 committee vision, 2, 21, 22 Physician services, definition of, 472 core nursing practice, 39 Physicians economic value of, 54, 57 aging of workforce, 125 information technology and, 51, 54 definition of, 472 models of, 11, 51, 52-53, 56-58 Medicare reimbursement policies, 104 need for, 1, 50, 86 resistance to change, 110-111 nurses and, 4, 6, 8, 26, 27-28, 29, 30, 54, RN programs for foreign physicians, 56-58 580-581 principles for change, 50, 51-54 supply of, 125-126, 257, 594-595 Proclamation for Change, 30 Physicians Foundation, 552 and quality of care, 51 Pileggi, Joanne, 146, 147 responsibility for achieving, 15 Poland, 573, 577, 603 Transforming Care at the Bedside, 52-53, Policy (see Health policy) 120, 231, 416, 561 Practice transformation (see also Health care Patient-centered medical homes, 94, 117, 132, delivery reforms) 134-135, 248, 377-379, 381, 449, and access to primary care, 29, 88-90 511 accountable care organizations, 9, 30, 95, Patient examination and treatment, 101 131, 132, 148, 255-256, 277, 375- Patient preferences, 51 376, 380-381, 389-390, 391, 396, Patient satisfaction, 53, 57, 93, 95, 98, 112, 559 113, 114, 203, 227, 231, 238, 425, acute care, 29-30 433, 465, 521, 554, 557 aging workforce and, 4, 5, 125-127

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 INDEX APRNs, 86, 88, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98-103, transitional care, 24, 27, 37, 66, 67, 70- 106, 107, 108-109 71, 86, 94, 121, 124, 132, 148, 199, barriers to, 4-5, 25-26, 95-131 276-277, 375, 378, 379-380, 381, care management models, 11, 376-381 388, 389, 390, 393, 395-396, 541, case studies, 108-109, 134-135, 138-139, 545, 557, 559 146-147 turnover rates and, 5, 117-120 community health centers, 133 value of nurses, 3, 115 demographic challenges, 5, 124-131 Prenatal care, 28 (see also Certified nurse Department of Veterans Affairs, 91-92 midwives) examination and certification, 100 Prescription for Pennsylvania, 112, 247, 248- examples of redesigned roles, 91-95 249, 250 fragmented health care system and, 5, Prescriptive authority, 101-102 114-116 Prevention and health promotion, 37 Geisinger Health System, 92-93 Primary care services, 3, 37 (see also gender diversity, 4, 127-128 Community and public health) importance, 86-95 ACA and, 22, 49, 54, 86, 88, 96, 108, insurance company policies and, 136, 257, 269 116-117 access to, 49, 55, 88-90, 99, 102, 108- Kaiser Permanente, 93-95 109, 136 key message, 4, 29-30, 34, 85 ACO model, 9, 30, 95, 131, 132, 148, medical/health homes, 132-133, 134-135 255-256, 277, 375-376, 380-381, need for, 28-34 389-390, 391, 396, 559 non-APRN nurses, 107 capacity building, 381-382, 508-511 nurse-managed health centers, 133, 136, case studies, 60-61, 108-109 138-139 complexity of care, 88, 90 opposition of professionals to, 4, 107, culturally relevant care, 54, 61 110-114, 457-460 defined, 54, 472 patient-centered medical homes, 94, 117, education needs, 508-511 132, 134-135, 248, 377-379, 381, functions and hallmarks of, 54 511 guided care model, 94-95, 378 patient examination and treatment, 5, and health disparities, 55 101 impacts of health care reform, 375-376, patient satisfaction, 53, 57, 93, 95, 98, 381-382 112, 113, 114, 203, 227, 231, 238, information technology and, 51, 54 425, 433, 465, 521, 554, 557 intensive, for chronic disease prescriptive authority, 5, 101-102 management, 419 racial and ethnic diversity, 4, 128-130 medical/health home model, 9, 30, 94, recommendations, 9-11, 278-280, 484 95, 102, 103, 114, 117, 132-133, referrals and orders, 5, 100-101 134-135, 148, 248, 255, 277, 375, regulatory barriers, 4, 5, 29, 96-107 377-379, 381, 389, 430, 449, 458, research priority, 274 464, 472, 486, 511, 559 residency (transition-to-practice) nurses and, 27-28, 30, 55, 59, 60-61, 88- programs, 5-6, 11-12, 120-124 90, 108-109, 382, 486 and safety and quality of care, 3, 22, 24- patient centered, 51, 54, 94, 117, 132, 25, 90, 92, 97 134-135, 248, 377-379, 381, 449, state licensure, 100-103 511 support for, 106, 112-114 and population health, 37, 55 technology and, 30, 93, 94, 136-137, principles for change, 54-55, 59 140-144 reimbursement rates, 10 school-based health centers, 28, 40, 60- 61, 64, 235, 246, 432-436, 561

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 INDEX R settings for, 55 shortages of providers, 7, 54, 55, 88 Racial and ethnic diversity, 122, 128-130, team approach, 92-93 207-209 testimony questions, 302-303 Recommendations workforce, 59, 61, 88, 108, 116, 194, available evidence and, 272-273 248, 256, 257-258, 262, 369, 382, for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 383, 389, 390, 463, 464, 490, 507, Services, 279 508 collaborative improvement efforts, 279 Principles for change considerations informing, 270-277 community and public health care, 59, for Congress, 9-10, 278 62-64 costs associated with, 273-274 interprofessional collaboration, 72, 76 data collection and analysis patient-centered care, 51-54, 56-58 infrastructure, 14-15, 283-284 primary care services, 54-55, 59 for Department of Justice Antitrust role reconceptionalization for Division, 10, 279 professionals, 66-67, 72 education of nurses, 12-14, 281-282 seamless, coordinated care, 65-66 faculty recruitment and retention, 13 Professional organizations, leadership roles, for Federal Trade Commission, 10, 279 239-241 implementation of, 274-277 Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly leadership opportunities for nurses, 11, (PACE), 65, 66, 69, 558 12, 14, 279-280, 282-283 Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, 192, for Office of Personnel Management, 279 193 residency programs, 280 Psychiatric/mental health nurses, 40, 41, 97- scope and focus of report and, 271-272 98, 333, 576, 577, 580, 591, 593, scope of practice, 9-11, 278-280 596-597, 599, 610, 621, 630 for state legislatures, 10, 278 Public health (see also Community and public technology development, 11 health care) workforce capacity building, 13, 281-282 education models, 439-440 Raise the Voice campaign, 245 n.13 infectious disease prevention and control, RAND Corporation, 463-466 439 Raphael, Carol, 122 infrastructure and workforce, 59, 62-64 Rasmussen, Helen, 134, 135 leadership development, 440 Referrals and orders, 100-101 movement, 37 Registered nurses (RNs; see also Advanced nurses/nursing issues, 59, 62-63, 437-438 practice registered nurses; degree political influence of nurses, 441 programs and specialties) recommendations, 440-441 and access to care, 27-28 spending, 50 acute care, 389-390 workforce and infrastructure, 59 aging of, 125-127, 204-205, 369, 370, Public Health Management Corporation, 249 387 Public Policy Institute, 251 career transition program, 204-205 earnings, 43, 386 education, 23, 25, 39, 40-42, 43, 44, 166, Q 186, 370, 491, 571-572 Quality and Safety Education for Nurses employment settings, 23, 24, 25, 30, 119, (QSEN) project, 496, 531 386 Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force, foreign-educated, 577, 583 392 gender diversity, 370 Quality of care (see Safety and quality of care) licensure, 23, 39, 327

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 INDEX physician-to-RN programs for foreign Reimbursement (see Compensation/ doctors, 580-581 reimbursement policies) primary care, 55, 94, 382, 383 Rendell, Edward, 112, 248-249, 250 racial/ethnic diversity, 128, 129, 370 Rescue agents, 141 residencies, 123-124 Researcher/scientist nurses scope of practice, 39, 43, 94, 107 competencies, 6 specialties, 39-40 education, 164, 194, 195, 197-198, 276, workforce size, 59, 61, 258, 369, 382, 412, 517-521, 532 383, 387 leadership roles, 238-239 Regulation of scope of practice (see also nursing education research, 198 Consensus model for APRN nursing science research, 23, 198-199 regulation; Health care service recommendations, 519-521 delivery reforms; Practice shortages of, 7, 517-521 transformation) Research priorities and access to care, 99, 450 care management models, 11, 391-396 barriers to practice transformation, 4, 29, comparative effectiveness research, 484, 96-107, 444, 446-451 485 continuing competence, 570-571 education, 276 costs of dysfunctional system, 450-451 interagency innovations research economic costs of, 451 collaborative, 392 examination and certification of patients, leadership, 11, 277 100, 447, 473 residencies, 274 examination and treatment of patients, scope of practice, 274 101, 448 teamwork, 275 expanding, 106-107, 108-109 technology, 11, 275 federal reforms, 103-105 value of reforms, 275 Federation of State Medical Boards Residencies and internships (transition-to- guidelines, 459 practice) programs historical context, 96-98, 451-452 accreditation standards, 121 impediments to removal of restrictive barriers to practice transformation, 5-6, provisions, 451-460 31, 120-124 and innovation in care delivery, 450 chronic disease management, 121, 124, licensure, 100-103 545 medical practice acts and, 96-97, 451- cost, 121 453, 458-459 dedicated education units, 190, 192-193, Medicare, 444 211, 410, 412, 513, 544 monitoring for anticompetitive effects, 5, desired features, 545-546 10-11, 105, 145, 279, 470 evaluation of, 12, 123 non-APRN nurses, 107 funding, 12, 122, 124 nurse practitioners, 5, 98-103, 157-161 Joint Commission recommendation, 5-6, prescriptive authority, 101-102, 448-449 120-121 opposition to change, 107, 110-114, models, 543-546 457-460 need for, 513 recommendations for legislatures, 10, outside acute care, 6, 121-123, 545 278 recommendations, 5-6, 11-12, 120-124 referrals and orders, 100, 448 regulatory model, 121 state variation, 5, 98-103, 157-161, 444, in rural and critical access areas, 12 446-450, 453-454 salary during, 124 and workforce shortages, 450 success of, 6, 12, 123-124 Rehabilitation nurses, 40 and turnover rates, 6, 12, 120-121 UHC/AACN model, 121, 123, 544

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 INDEX Resistance of professionals to change, 107, Inpatient Quality Indicators, 238 110-114 interprofessional collaboration and, 49, Retail/convenient care clinics, 3, 23, 28, 59, 72 93, 102, 112, 113, 249, 402, 428, leadership of nurses in, 238 430, 463, 464, 465, 470, 471, 490 medical errors, 52 Return to Care, 416 Medicare’s fee-for-service, 93 Rhode Island, 260, 356, 357, 358, 360 National Database of Nursing Quality Rick, Catherine, 133, 134-135 Indicators, 27 Ridge, Tom, 250 NPs, 92, 97, 428, 429, 510, 533 Riverside Medical Center, 94 patient-centered care and, 51, 52-53, 57, Riverside Proactive Health Management 120, 231, 416, 561 Program (RiPHM)™, 94 performance measures, 26-27, 142, 194, Robert J. Dole VA Medical Center, 135 431, 470 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation physician type and length of preparation Colleagues in Caring, 401 and, 111 Executive Nurse Fellows Program, 225, practice transformation and, 3, 24-25, 86, 243, 401-402 87, 90, 91, 92-93, 94, 95, 97, 111, Health Policy Fellows Program, 243-244, 112, 113 247 Transforming Care at the Bedside, 52-53, INQRI, 65-66, 90, 239 120, 231, 416, 561 Investigator Awards Program, 243-244 Salaries, 25, 43, 171, 172, 186-187, 188, 265, Nursing Alliance for Quality Care, 486 240-241 Sampson, Deborah, 88 Nursing for Life initiative, 204 Sandoval, Carolina, 60-61 Nursing Quality Research Initiative, 239 Sanofi Pasteur, 61 Nursing Research Network, 88, 112, 168, Saudi Arabia, 574, 607 171, 187-188, 259, 261, 272, 285, Saunders, Cicely, 423 286, 287-288, 289 Schenectady County Public Health Services, partnership with IOM, 2, 22 62 Transforming Care at the Bedside School nurses and school-based health centers, initiative, 52-53, 120, 231, 416, 561 28, 40, 60-61, 64, 235, 246, 432- vision for health care, 22 436, 561 Rockefeller Foundation, 286 Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 111 Rush University, 360, 528 Scope of Practice Partnership, 110, 458 n.17 Russia, 575, 581, 599, 616 Selecky, Mary, 235 Sermo.com, 112 Service Employees International Union, 211 S Sharp, Jamie, 192-193 Shinseki, Eric, 134 Safety and quality of care Sigma Theta Tau International, 634 ACOs and, 9, 30, 95, 131, 132, 148, Simulation Innovation Resource Center, 255-256, 277, 375-376, 380-381, 189-190 389-390, 391, 396, 559 Singapore, 573, 598, 607, 626-627 CNMs, 28 Skilled nursing facilities/care, 10, 101, 204, Condition H, 52-53 274, 278, 448, 473 continuous improvements in, 49, 67, 94 Smith, Dorothy, 229 coordination of services and, 65 Smith Hughes Act, 372 educational attainment and, 169-170, Social Security Administration, 247 406, 485-486, 505-506, 512, 538, Society of Hospital Medicine, 557 568 South Carolina, 160, 629 innovations in, 90 South Dakota, 160, 360

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 INDEX Southern Adventist University, 185 Texas Nurses Association, 365 Spain, 571, 573 Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Specialties (see Nursing specialties; individual 418 specialties) Texas Woman’s University, 265, 321 St. Kitts International School of Nursing, 405, Thailand, 573 585, 629 Third-party payers, 10 St. Louis Community College, 232 Tibbetts, Jackie, 204, 205 St. Petersburg College (U.S.), 180 TIGER (Technology Informatics Guiding St. Petersburg University (Russia), 581 Education Reform) Initiative, 143 St. Vincent’s Nurse-Managed Health Center, Torregrossa, Ann S., 248, 249 419 Torres, Colette S., 135 Staff Nurse Care Coordination model, 65-66 Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Agreement, Stanford Self-Management Model, 428-429 628 Stange, Kevin, 88 Transformacion Para Salud Program, 418-419 State practice regulations (see Regulation of Transforming Care at the Bedside, 52-53, 120, scope of practice; individual states) 231, 416, 561 State University of New York (SUNY), 581 Transition to practice (see Residencies) States (see also individual states) Transitional care, 24, 27, 37, 66, 67, 70-71, workforce data collection, 14-15 86, 94, 121, 124, 132, 148, 199, Statewide Nursing Consortiums Curriculums, 276-277, 375, 378, 380, 381, 388, 406 389, 390, 393, 395-396, 541, 545, Steele, Glenn, 92 557, 559 Strumpf, Neville, 229 Transitional Care Model (TCM), 66, 70-71, Student nurses and leadership, 229-234 276-277, 380, 557 Sub-Saharan Africa, 612-614 (see also specific Tri-Council for Nursing, 171-172 countries) Trilateral Initiative for North American Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Nursing, 625-626 Healthcare Workforce, 207 Tuning Project, 569 Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M., 68, 69 Turnover rates, 5, 6, 27, 53, 86, 96, 117-120, SUTTP Alliance (Stepping Up to the Plate for 121, 123, 223, 235, 237, 270, 288 Managing Transitions in Care), 557 U T Ukraine, 568, 575, 577, 580, 629 Taiwan, 573, 578 Uncles, Lisa Betina, 58 Tanner, Christine A., 175-176 Undergraduate nursing education (see also Tavenner, Marilyn, 246 Associate’s degree; Bachelor’s Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006, 379 of science; Community college Teamwork (see Interprofessional programs; Diploma nursing collaboration) programs; Faculty) Technology (see Health information application trends, 31 technology) barriers to meeting needs, 31, 179-193, Telehealth services, 64, 136-137, 227, 236, 486-489 237, 276, 402, 420-421, 451, 631 case studies, 174-176, 180-181, 192-193 TelEmergency, 144 clinical placement opportunities, 31-32, Tennessee, 160, 356, 357, 360 189-190 Texas, 161, 226, 256, 262, 264-265, 355, 356, costs, 168-169, 370-371 358, 360, 365, 583, 590, 596, 599, curriculum development, 7, 13, 190-191 612, 618 degree distribution, 166-167 Texas Nurse Practitioners, 108 funding for, 12, 13, 484

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0 INDEX goals and implementation plan for, 7, University of Texas, 265, 321, 419 172-177 University of Virginia, 185 licensed practical nurses, 7 University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 231 licensing exam, 167-168 Urban Institute, 177, 506 international differences, 579 U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force, 171 off shore schools, 405, 585-586 U.S. Nurse Licensure Examinations, 165 n.2, and outcomes of patients, 169-178 167, 574 overview of current education, 165-169 U.S. Public Health Service, 171 partnerships, 405 Utah, 161, 355, 356, 357, 358, 363, 365, 378, pathways, 7, 12, 165-166, 369-373 433 rationale for all-BSN workforce, 168-179 recommendations, 12-13, 524-525 V standardization of curriculum, 406, 407, 479, 539-540, 569-570 Value of nurses, 25, 28, 115 (see also transition to higher degree programs, 7, Economic value) 30, 32, 505-507 Vermont, 61, 161, 590, 596 United Arab Emirates, 574 Board of Nursing, 356, 357, 359, 360, United Kingdom, 203, 566, 568, 569 n.5, 571, 433 572, 573, 574, 575, 576, 579-580, Veterans Affairs Nursing Academy, 183, 582, 590, 594, 596, 603-607, 613, 210-211 630 Veterans Health Administration, 392 Universities, community college partnerships Versant, 6, 121, 123 with, 173, 174-175, 479, 505, 519, Vietnam, 572 536, 538, 539-540 Virginia, 161, 246, 355, 356 University of Hawaii, 406 Virginia Commonwealth University, 425 University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC), Visiting Nurse Association of Central Jersey, 121, 123, 513, 544 236-237 University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Visiting Nurse Service of New York, 64, 122, 224, 225 143 University of California, San Francisco, 199, Voices of Meningitis Campaign, 61 406 University of Colorado, Denver, 75 University of Florida, 229, 528 W University of Houston, 264 University of Kansas School of Nursing, 27 Wakefield, Mary, 247 University of Louisville, 128, 130 Wald, Florence, 423 University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Wald, Lillian, 64 Jersey, 237, 419-420 Warner, Joanne, 192 University of Michigan, 88 Washington state, 96, 161, 181, 235, 452 University of Mississippi, 144 Washington State Board for Community and University of Missouri, St. Louis, 232 Technical Colleges, 211 University of Pennsylvania Washington State Hospital Association, 211 Center for Biobehavioral Research, 143 Wehrwein, Terrie, 204 New-Courtland Center for Transitions WellPoint, 93 and Health, 71 Wenzel, Jennifer, 184-185 School of Nursing, 69, 143, 319 West Virginia, 161 University of Phoenix, 405 Western Governors University, 200, 405 University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 51, Wharton Fellows Program in Management for 52-53 Nurse Executives, 242 University of Portland, 190, 192-193 Wilensky, Gail, 115 University of South Florida, 180, 181 Wiley, Elizabeth, 462

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1 INDEX Wisconsin, 122, 161, 439-440 public health, 437-438, 438 Wisconsin Center for Nursing, 122 racial and ethnic diversity, 4, 7, 12, 25, Workforce (see also Foreign-educated nurses) 128-130, 207-209 acute care, 29, 388-389 recession-related layoffs and attrition, 59, aging, 4, 25, 59, 125-127, 259, 486 259 assessing demand, 263 recommendations, 391-396 capacity building, 9, 12, 25, 386-396 research coordination on, 15, 391-392 demand for nurses, 376-386, 486, 568 researcher/scientist nurses, 517-521 faculty shortages, 7, 31, 170, 173, 179, shortages of nurses, 7, 25, 107, 118-119, 181, 182-188, 189, 193, 212, 265, 166, 171, 175, 176, 177, 195, 199, 276, 288, 404, 411, 438, 486, 487, 209, 211, 235, 256, 258, 259, 264, 488, 489, 507, 508, 516, 517, 529, 290, 370, 372, 387, 388, 390, 401, 537, 544, 572 404, 405, 437, 438, 484, 485, 507, foreign-educated nurses, 259, 566, 508, 516, 567 583-586 skill mixes, 9, 15, 283, 284, 376, 382, gaps in data, 8-9, 33-34, 259-263, 583 384, 385, 389, 391, 392-393, 394- gender diversity, 4, 7, 12, 25, 127-128, 395, 537, 567, 568, 570, 571, 589 209 turnover rates, 5, 6, 27, 53, 86, 96, 117- geographic distribution, 12, 583-586 120, 121, 123, 223, 235, 237, 270, global perspective, 566, 567 288 Gulf Coast Health Services Steering Workplace wellness programs, 382 Committee initiatives, 264-265 World Health Assembly, 572, 634 health care reform and, 375-386 World Health Organization (WHO) infrastructure for data collection, 14-15, Code of Practice on the International 29, 262 Recruitment of Health Personnel, key message, 4, 8, 29, 33-34, 255 634 leadership shortages, 401, 437 definition of health workers, 566 n.2 modeling, 393-394 Task Force on Global Standards in nursing projections, 15, 258-259 Nursing and Midwifery Education, nursing segment of, 2, 23, 24 572 physician shortages, 102, 107, 108, 490, World Health Report, 566, 570 508 Wortock, Jean, 180, 181 by practice setting, 24, 30 Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses planning and policymaking, 29, 388-389, Society, 326, 363, 363, 365 390-391, 484, 491-492, 567, 583 Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing primary care, 59, 61, 88, 108, 116, 194, Certification Board, 326, 359, 365, 248, 256, 257-258, 262, 369, 382, 366 383, 389, 390, 463, 464, 490, 507, Wyoming, 161 508

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