COMA/SACN Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy and the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in the United Kingdom

Competitive foods Foods and beverages offered at schools other than meals and snacks served through the federally reimbursed National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and the after-school snack programs. Competitive foods include food and beverage items sold through a la carte lines, snack bars, student stores, vending machines, and school fundraisers.

Daily Reference Value (DRV) Value used in nutrition labeling for food components of public health concern for which there were no RDAs in 1993. In conjunction with RDIs, are known as Daily Values (DVs) in Nutrition Facts panel and specified in 21 CFR 101.9(c)(9).

Daily Value (DV) Dietary reference values established by FDA and used in nutrition labeling that are based on recommended daily intake levels of nutrients needed for good health. DV comprises RDIs and DRVs.

DGAC Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee

Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) A federal summary of the latest dietary guidance for the American public based on current scientific evidence and medical knowledge. The Guidelines are issued jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture and revised every 5 years.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) A set of four distinct nutrient-based reference values established by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences that replaced and expanded the former Recommended Dietary Allowances in the United States. They include Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), Adequate Intakes (AIs), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL).

Disclosure level The level of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium that, when exceeded, triggers the need for a disclosure statement when a nutrient content claim is used on labels of FDA-regulated food products. The disclosure statement (i.e., “See nutrition information for ___ content” with the blank filled in by the name of the nutrient exceeding the specified level) must be placed adjacent to the claim and is intended to alert consumers to levels of nutrients that may increase the risk of disease or health-related condition. Levels are specified in 21 CFR 101.13(h).

Discretionary calories The balance of calories remaining in a person’s “energy allowance” after consuming sufficient nutrient-dense forms of foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day. Discretionary calories may be used in selecting forms of foods that are not the most nutrient dense (e.g., whole milk rather than fat free milk) or may be additions to foods (e.g., salad dressing, sugar, butter). A person’s energy allowance is the calorie intake at which weight maintenance occurs.

Energy balance A state where calorie intake is equivalent to energy expenditure, resulting in no net weight gain or loss. In this report, energy balance in children is used to indicate equality between energy intake and energy expenditure that supports normal growth and development without promoting excess weight gain.

Energy expenditure Calories used to support the body’s basal metabolic needs plus those used for thermogenesis, growth, and physical activity.

Energy intake Calories ingested as food and beverages.

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