Challenges and Opportunities for Education About Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

Committee on Education on Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies


In cooperation with

IAP: The Global Network of Science Academies

International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

International Union of Microbiological Societies

Polish Academy of Sciences


Washington, D.C.

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Committee on Education on Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies In cooperation with IAP: The Global Network of Science Academies International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International Union of Microbiological Societies Polish Academy of Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern­ ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer­ ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Grant No. S­LMAQM­08­CA­1 40, A004 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of State. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number­13: 978­0­309­15840­4 International Standard Book Number­10: 0­309­15840­0 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624­6242 or (202) 334­3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, Copyright 2011 by the National Academies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self­perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern ­ ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem ­ bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis ­ ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the fed ­ eral government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineer­ ing communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION ON DUAL USE ISSUES IN THE LIFE SCIENCES VICKI CHANDLER (Chair), Chief Program Officer, Science, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, CA, USA JENNIFER GAUDIOSO, Principal Member of the Technical Staff, International Biological Threat Reduction Program, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA ANDRZEJ GÓRSKI, Vice­President, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, POLAND, ALASTAIR HAY, Professor, Environmental Toxicology, University of Leeds, UK MICHAEL IMPERIALE, Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA GABRIEL OGUNMOLA, Chairman, Regional Committee for Africa, International Council for Science; Executive Director, Science and Technology Development Foundation; former President, Nigerian Academy of Sciences, Ibadan, NIGERIA SERGIO JORGE PASTRANA, Foreign Secretary, Cuban Academy of Sciences, Havana, CUBA SUSAN SINGER, Laurence McKinley Gould Professor of the Natural Sciences, Department of Biology, Carleton College, Northfield, MN, USA GEOFFREY SMITH, Head, Department of Virology, Imperial College London, UK LEI ZHANG, Professor, Director, International Liaison Office, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, CHINA Staff JO L. HUSBANDS, Study Director and Senior Project Director KATHERINE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer ADAM P. FAGEN, Senior Program Officer (until June 2010) BEN RUSEK, Program Officer CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Senior Program Assistant 

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BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES KEITH R. YAMAMOTO (Chair), University of California, San Francisco BONNIE L. BASSLER, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, CA SEAN EDDY, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA MARK D. FITZSIMMONS, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, IL DAVID R. FRANZ, Midwest Research Institute, Frederick, MD DONALD E. GANEM, University of California, San Francisco LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN JO HANDELSMAN, Yale University, New Haven, CT CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT BERNARD LO, University of California, San Francisco ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA CAMILLE PARMESAN, University of Texas, Austin MURIEL E. POSTON, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY BRUCE W. STILLMAN, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY CYNTHIA WOLBERGER, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America, Alexandria, VA Staff FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist/Program Director for Biology Education KATHERINE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Program Officer ANNA FARRAR, Financial Associate CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Senior Program Assistant AMANDA MAZZAWI, Senior Program Assistant SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Program Assistant i

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Com­ mittee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institu­ tional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Spencer Benson, Uniersity of Maryland Marie Chevrier, Uniersity of Texas, Dallas Malcolm Dando, Uniersity of Bradford, United Kingdom Michael Hanna, Uniersity of Michigan Elizabeth Heitman, Vanderbilt Uniersity Medical Center Joseph Kanabrocki, University of Chicago Francis L. Macrina, Virginia Commonwealth Uniersity Henry Metzger, National Institutes of Health Jonathan Tucker, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies Richard Witter, U.S. Department of Agriculture ii

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc­ tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the con­ clusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by W. Emmett Barkley, Proen Practices, LLC. Appointed by the National Academies, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring com­ mittee and the institution. The Polish Academy of Sciences served as the host for the work ­ shop in November 2009. In addition to the able leadership of Professor Andrzej Górski, vice president of the Polish Academy, Dr. Urszula Wajcen, Director of International Relations, and two members of her staff, Anna Sienkiewicz and Joanna Szwedowska­Kotlinska, ensured the smooth and successful operation of the workshop.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 Background, 1 Gaps, Needs, and Potential Remedies, 5 The Committee’s Recommendations, 8 1 INTRODUCTION 11 Background, 11 The Broad Context of Science and Society, 13 The Life Sciences and Dual Use Issues, 17 The “Culture of Responsibility” in the Life Sciences, 23 The Life Sciences and the “Web of Prevention,” 24 The Emergence of Education as a Focus, 27 References, 30 2 A PRIMER ON THE SCIENCE OF LEARNING 33 Introduction, 33 Approaches to Effective Education, 35 Summary, 48 References, 48 3 CURRENT CONDITIONS: ESTABLISHING A BASELINE ABOUT EDUCATION ON DUAL USE ISSUES 51 Introduction, 51 The Current State of Education on Dual Use and Biosecurity, 52 ix

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x CONTENTS Beyond the Baseline: Some Examples of Increasing Interest in Education About Dual Use Issues, 65 References, 69 4 GAPS, NEEDS, AND POTENTIAL REMEDIES 73 Introduction, 73 Educational Materials and Methods, 75 Implementing Education About Dual Use Issues: Practical Considerations, 83 Broader Implementation Issues, 94 Summing Up: The Committee’s Recommendations, 102 References, 104 APPENDIXES A Committee Member Biographies 107 B List of Workshop Participants and Agenda 113 C Recognizing the Importance of Education 123 D Discussion Questions for Breakout Sessions 135