Cover Image


View/Hide Left Panel

Food Group

Participant Group


Milk and alternatives




Infants, 0–11 months

No milk products (e.g., yogurt, cheese) allowed


Children (age 1 y)

Whole milk only


Children (age ≥ 2 y) and adults

Nonfat (skim) and low-fat (1%), no higher fat milks


Children (age ≥ 5 y) and adults

Nonfat flavored milk containing no more than 22 g of sugar per 8 fl oz is allowed only for children age 5 and older in at-risk afterschool programsc and for adults.


Children (age ≥ 2 y) and adults

Yogurt must conform to the FDA’s Standard of Identity (21 C.F.R. 131.200) and any updates of these regulations; low-fat yogurt, (21 C.F.R. 131.203); nonfat yogurt, (21 C.F.R. 131.206); plain or flavored; fortified with vitamin D to be comparable to milk; ≤ 17 g of total sugars per 100 g yogurt (40 g/8 oz serving). Yogurt may not contain more than 1% milk fat. May be used as an alternative to either milk or meat no more than once per day.

Soy beverages and other milk substitutes

Children and adults

Soy beverage must meet the standards set in the USDA/FNS Interim Rule for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): Revisions in the WIC Food Packages and provide a minimum 8 g of protein, 100 IU for vitamin D and 500 IU for vitamin A, and 276 mg calcium per 8 oz (USDA/FNS, 2007). Low-fat or nonfat unflavored soy beverages for children at least 2 years of age and adults. Flavored soy beverage must be nonfat and may contain no more than 22 g of sugar per 8 fl oz. Other milk substitutes must be fortified as stated for soy beverage above. For children, requests for soy beverage and other milk substitutes must be processed consistent with USDA procedures.

Meatd and meat alternates



Red meats and poultry

Children and adults

Fresh or plain frozen lean beef, pork, lamb, venison, chicken, turkey, other poultry: broiled, roasted, braised, stewed, stir fried in mixed dishes with nonstick spray or vegetable oil. Remove skin from poultry before serving. Limit higher fat meats (e.g., hamburger with ≥ 20% fat, fatty pork).


Children and adults

Fresh, frozen, or canned fish or seafood. No more than 6 oz (or for children, age-appropriate servings) of albacore tuna per week. Avoid serving shark, swordfish, tilefish, or king mackerel. Choose low-sodium water-pack canned fish.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement