AAP American Academy of Pediatrics
ADA American Dietetic Association
AI Adequate Intake
AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
AoA Administration on Aging
ARS Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
BMI body mass index
BRFSS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CI confidence interval
CNPP Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U.S. Department of Agriculture
CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals
DFE dietary folate equivalent
DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans
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A Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AAP American Academy of Pediatrics ADA American Dietetic Association AI Adequate Intake aT a-tocopherol AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AoA Administration on Aging ARS Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture BMI body mass index BRFSS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System c cup CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFR Code of Federal Regulations CI confidence interval CNPP Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U.S. Department of Agriculture CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals DFE dietary folate equivalent DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 191
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192 CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM DRI Dietary Reference Intakes EAR Estimated Average Requirement EER Estimated Energy Requirement EFNEP Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program eq equivalent ERS Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture FCS Food and Consumer Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture FDA Food and Drug Administration FFVP Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program FITS Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study fl fluid FNDDS Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies FNS Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture FY fiscal year g gram HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services IOM Institute of Medicine, The National Academies IU international unit kcal kilocalorie/calorie kg kilogram mg milligram MPED MyPyramid Equivalents Database NCHS National Center for Health Statistics, CDC NFSMI National Food Service Management Institute NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NIH National Institutes of Health NRC National Research Council, The National Academies NSLP National School Lunch Program OR odds ratio oz ounce
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193 APPENDIX A PAL physical activity level P.L. Public Law RA/RAE retinol activity/retinol activity equivalent RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance RNI Recommended Nutrient Intakes SBP School Breakfast Program SoFAS solid fats and added sugars T tablespoon TMI Target Median Intake tsp teaspoon μg microgram UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children y years GLOSSARY Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges The range of intakes of an energy source that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease yet that can provide adequate amounts of essential nutrients. Adequate Intake A recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group or groups of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate. Composite Food Items 133 food item groupings, each of which represents several of many similar food items (for example, orange juice, which also includes lemon juice and lime juice). Based on research done by Marcoe et al. (2006)1 in the development of the MyPyramid food guidance system. Also called “food clusters.” 1 Marcoe, K. W. Juan, S. Yamini, A. Carlson, and P. Britten. 2006. Development of food group composites and nutrient profiles for the MyPyramid food guidance system. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 38(6 Suppl):S93–S107.
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194 CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Dietary Reference Intakes A family of nutrient reference values established by the Institute of Medicine. Enhanced Snack A single afternoon snack option for adults and children at least 5 years of age to be served in place of a smaller snack in both the morning and the afternoon. The enhanced snack would have the same requirements as two of the smaller snacks. Estimated Average Requirement The usual daily intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a life-stage and gender group. Estimated Energy Requirement The average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, weight, height, and activity level consistent with good health. In children and pregnant and lactating women, it includes the needs associated with deposition of tissues or the secretion of milk at rates consistent with good health. Food Clusters See Composite Food Items. Food Deserts Neighborhoods and communities that have limited access to affordable and nutritious foods. Food Group One of five food groups that comprise reimbursable meals for children ages 1 year or older and adults planned to meet the meal requirements. The five food components are meat and meat alternate, grains and breads, fruits, vegetables, and fluid milk. Food Specifications A phrase that indicates the types of infant foods and foods from the five food groups that will help achieve nutritional quality. In general, specifications help to limit foods that are high in solid fats, added sugars, and trans fat. Meal Patterns A phrase used to refer to specified food groups and amounts to serve from each group for various age groups to achieve the meal requirements. Meal Requirements A set of standards that encompasses two distinct elements: meal patterns and food specifications to be used for menu planning. Menu Item Any single food or combination of foods, except condiments, served in a meal. All menu items or foods offered as part of the reimbursable meal will be counted toward meeting the Meal Requirements. National School Lunch Program The program under which participating schools operate a nonprofit lunch program, in accordance with 7 C.F.R. Part 210. Nutrient Density (of foods) The amount of a specific nutrient in a food per 100 calories of that food.
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195 APPENDIX A Nutrient Targets New recommended goals for the amounts of nutrients and other dietary components to be provided by CACFP meals. Nutrient Targets provide the scientific basis for developing Meal Patterns. Reimbursable Meal A meal that (1) meets the standards set by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and (2) is served to an eligible participant. Such meals qualify for reimbursement with federal funds. Representative Menus Menus from foods used by CACFP family day care providers that were selected using the CACFP component serving data for use in comparing nutrients and costs under the current Meal Requirements with those under the recommended Meal Requirements. School Breakfast Program The program under which participating schools operate a nonprofit breakfast program in accordance with 7 C.F.R. Part 220. Sponsoring Organization Organizations that enter into agreements with their administering state agencies to assume administrative and financial responsibility for CACFP operations. State Agency Agencies within the states that administer the CACFP. In most states the state educational agency administers CACFP but in a few states it is administered by an alternate agency, such as the state health or social services department. The child care component and the adult day care component of CACFP may be administered by different agencies within a state, at the discretion of the governor. Target Median Intake Statistically derived target for the median intake of a nutrient to be used to plan diets for groups. Tolerable Upper Intake Level The highest daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Usual Nutrient Intake Distribution A distribution of reported nutrient intakes based on 24-hour recalls, that has been statistically adjusted to better estimate a usual intake distribution; for this report, references to nutrient intake include intakes of energy (calories).
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