Head Start programs, publicly funded pre-kindergarten, and private child care (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2009).
As discussed in Chapter 1, family day care homes and traditional child care centers comprise the majority of CACFP providers (more than 93 percent). Preschool children, the largest age group in full-day care, were reported by the U.S. Census Bureau to spend about 32 hours per week in care of any type. According to the 2006 Survey of Income and Program Participation, the number of children younger than 5 years of age reported in all child care arrangements in the United States was about 12.7 million (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006).
Ethnic and socioeconomic considerations Data from the U.S. Census Bureau indicate there are substantial ethnic and socioeconomic differences among children enrolled in different types of day care programs. Enrollment data from 2004 by racial and ethnic group showed that about 25 percent of black, Asian, and non-Hispanic white children of working mothers were enrolled in day care. By comparison, only 5 percent of children of Hispanic working mothers were enrolled in day care. Hispanic mothers were twice as likely as non-Hispanic white mothers to rely on relatives, including siblings, for care of their preschool children (19 vs. 7 percent, respectively; U.S. Census Bureau, 2006). Enrollment in day care programs is 10 percent greater for children from families with incomes above the federal poverty level than for children from families in poverty, whose children are more likely to be cared for by a sibling (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006).
Meals in day care Child day care homes provided 497.5 million meals in fiscal year (FY) 2010 and child day care centers provided 1.1 billion meals during that same period (USDA/FNS, 2010h, Table 13a). The committee was unable to locate current program-wide data on average meals served to participants per unit of time by age group. To try to provide some perspective, the very limited available information on CACFP’s contribution to children’s nutrition is summarized below.
Analysis of survey data gathered in 1999 from parents or guardians of children served by CACFP family day care homes found that children in tier II homes would likely consume 50 percent of their daily energy requirements from the breakfast-lunch-one-snack-meal combination and two-thirds from the breakfast-lunch-two-snack-combination (USDA/ERS, 2002).
Children in afterschool programs, who are typically in care for a minimum of 2 hours a day, generally receive only one snack—a small fraction of their daily food needs. These participants, however, may have been provided slightly more than half of their daily food needs through the SBP and the NSLP combined. Those children in the afterschool programs that