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2003–2004 do not include contributions from dietary supplements. For this reason, the committee’s assessment of usual nutrient intakes relative to ULs focused primarily on intakes of sodium.

Usual intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol were compared with the recommendations in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HHS/USDA, 2005) to determine the percentage of individuals in each age group with intakes that exceeded the recommendations.

Evaluating Ranges of Energy Intake from Macronutrients

AMDRs are expressed as a percentage of the total energy intake. For example, the AMDR for fat for children ages 4 through 18 years is 25 to 35 percent of the total energy intake. For these nutrients, the proportion of an age group that fell within defined AMDRs, as well as proportions with usual intakes that either exceeded or fell below the AMDRs, was examined.


NHANES 2003–2004, plus the MPED 2.0, were the primary sources of dietary data used by the committee. The standards against which intakes were measured included AAP recommendations for those younger than 2 years, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HHS/USDA, 2005) for those 2 years and older, and the DRIs for persons across the entire age span. Mean food intakes for those ages 2 years and older were evaluated by comparison with MyPyramid food pattern recommendations for selected calorie levels. Nutrient intakes were evaluated using the IOM methodology. Results of these evaluations appear in the next two chapters.


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AAP. 2001a. WIC program. Pediatrics 108(5):1216–1217.

AAP. 2001b. American Academy of Pediatrics: The use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics. Pediatrics 107(5):1210–1213.

AAP. 2005. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 115(2):496–506.

AAP. 2009. Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 6th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: AAP.

ADA (American Dietetic Association). 2004. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Dietary guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104(4):660–677.

Ard, J. D., C. J. Coffman, P. H. Lin, and L. P. Svetkey. 2004. One-year follow-up study of blood pressure and dietary patterns in Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium participants. American Journal of Hypertension 17(12):1156–1162.

Appel, L. J., M. W. Brands, S. R. Daniels, N. Karanja, P. J. Elmer, and F. M. Sacks. 2006. Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 47(2):296–308.

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