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TABLE 4-2 Estimated Prevalence of Inadequacy of Selected Micronutrients and Protein Using Usual Intakes in Infants


Estimated Prevalence of Inadequacy (%)

WIC Infants, Nonbreastfed, 6–11 Months (n = 275)

Breastfed Infants, 6–11 Monthsa (n = 143)










NOTES: n = sample size.

aBecause of the lack of data on the quantity of breast milk consumed by breast-fed infants 6–11 months of age, protein adequacy could not be assessed. Iron and zinc adequacy could be estimated because breast milk consumed by breastfed infants has little iron and zinc content.

SOURCES: Adapted from IOM, 2006, Table 2-1. Intake data are from 1994–1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (USDA/ARS, 2000); data set does not include intake from dietary supplements (e.g., multivitamin and mineral preparations). Intake distributions were calculated using PC-SIDE (ISU, 1997). Estimated Average Requirements used in the analysis were from the Dietary Reference Intake reports (IOM, 2001, 2002/2005).

Table C-29). By far the largest contributors to children’s intake of added sugars (45 percent of the total amount) are regular soda and noncarbonated sweetened drinks (USDA/FNS, 2008, Table C-30).



Data on nutrient intakes by infants, especially very young and/or breastfed infants are limited. Reporting on findings from the first FITS, which included both formula-fed and breastfed infants, Briefel and colleagues (2006) show that Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants ages 4 and 5 months had usual intakes that were all well above the respective Adequate Intakes (AIs) of the 11 micronutrients that were studied.1 For infants ages 6–11 months, mean intakes exceeded the AI for 9 micronutrients.2

Table 4-2, adapted from WIC Food Packages (IOM, 2006), which used data from the 1990s, shows that the prevalence of inadequate iron and zinc intakes were quite high among breastfed compared to formula-fed infants ages 6–11 months. Iron and zinc are the only micronutrients for


Vitamins A, C, D, E, folate, and B12; calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc.


Vitamins A, C, D, E, folate, and B12; calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. Iron and zinc are not included because an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) rather than an AI has been set for infants ages 6–11 months.

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