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TABLE 4-3 Estimated Prevalence of Inadequacy of Protein and Selected Vitamins and Minerals Among Children Based on Usual Nutrient Intakes from NHANESa

 

Estimated Prevalence of Inadequate Usual Intakes (%)

 

 

5–10 Years

11–13 Years

14–18 Years

1 Year

2–4 Years

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

Protein

0

0

0.6

3.3

1.8

6

6

12

Vitamin A

1.6

1.8

11

13

29

32

62

56

Vitamin C

0.2

1.2

6

5

9

8

39

42

Vitamin E

82

82

86

88

88

95

94

100

Thiamin

0

0

0

0

0.1

0

4.9

0

Riboflavin

0

0

0

0.2

0.1

0.5

2.2

1.0

Niacin

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.2

Vitamin B6

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

1.1

5

10

Folate

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.6

0.3

8

14

Vitamin B12

0

0

0

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.3

2.4

Phosphorus

0.2

0.1

4.0

13

12

39

14

37

Magnesium

0.1

0.2

7

15

20

45

79

95

Iron

1.5

0.7

0.2

0.2

0

7b

1.2

9

Zinc

0.1

0.1

0.6

2.9

1.8

9

5

11

NOTES: Bold font indicates values with a prevalence of inadequacy greater than 5 percent. Includes pregnant and lactating women.

aAll nutrients in this table have an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR).

bMethods used to calculate iron values for females 11–13 years old are described in Chapter 3.

SOURCES: Intake data from NHANES 2003–2004. The EARs used in the analysis were from the Dietary Reference Intake reports (IOM, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002/2005).

Estimates for Nutrients with an Adequate Intake Value

The mean and median intakes for five nutrients (calcium, potassium, fiber, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid) were identified by age group and are shown in relation to the AI (see Table 4-4). Sodium is not included in Table 4-4 because the concern is for excessive rather than inadequate sodium intake. Data on vitamin D intakes were not available for the age groups used in this study. However, the recent What We Eat in America survey (USDA/ARS, 2009) includes estimates of vitamin D intakes (for different age groups) and indicates low intakes, especially for adolescent females.

Table 4-4 shows that mean intakes of potassium and fiber were below the AI for all five age groups and that mean intake of calcium was below the AI for the older two age groups and for the 5–10-year-old girls (bold values in Table 4-4). The mean intakes of linoleic and α-linolenic acids were above the AI for all five age groups. It is important to note a concurrent IOM study is reviewing the DRIs for vitamin D and calcium; and



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