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for planning daily diets for groups in the report Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning (IOM, 2003).

Overview of the Target Median Intake Approach

The overall goal of planning intakes for groups of people is to achieve usual daily intakes within the group that meet the requirements of most individuals without being excessive (IOM, 2003). This goal is accomplished by combining information on the group’s usual nutrient intakes with information on the group’s nutrient requirements (expressed as either an EAR or AI and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level [UL]). The target nutrient intake distribution that is chosen aims to achieve the combined goal of a low predicted prevalence of nutrient inadequacy and a low predicted prevalence of excessive intakes. The median of this intake distribution is the Target Median Intake (TMI). The TMI was the starting point for the committee’s calculations to derive the nutrient targets for CACFP meals. The process for setting the initial TMIs for nutrients for children and adults differs depending on whether the nutrient has an EAR or an AI; both processes are described below. TMIs for nutrients are presented in Tables 6-4 and 6-5 for children and adults, respectively.

Setting Targets for Nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement

Background For most nutrients with an EAR, the current prevalence of inadequacy may be estimated using the EAR cut-point method (IOM, 2006a). If the prevalence of inadequacy is too high, then one goal of the planning process is to reduce the prevalence of inadequacy to an acceptable level. Thus, one of the steps in planning for the nutrient intake of groups is to select the target prevalence of inadequacy. In keeping with the approach used previously by the School Meals committee, this committee set 5 percent rather than the more conservative 2 to 3 percent that has been suggested as an acceptable level of inadequacy (IOM, 2003).

The EARs used to determine the TMIs for children ages 5–10 and 11–13 years are weighted averages of two age groups. The use of weighted averages was necessary because these two age groups span parts of two DRI age groups (4–8 and 9–13 years). The weighting factor was the proportion of the 5-year age span. For example, for the age group 5–10 years, the weighted average was four-sixths (2/3) of the requirement for ages 4–8 years and two-sixths (1/3) of the requirement for ages 9–13 years.

Methodological approach The method recommended in Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning (IOM, 2003) involves determining the nutrient intake distributions that will result in approximately a 5

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