be described as two distinct types. Presenters and discussants across the three workshops identified propositions with reasonably strong support (and associated questions), of which a number have important practical implications. The presentations and discussions were also replete with both broad and specific recommendations for further research hypothesis testing/development, data collection, and application of findings. This chapter summarizes these key themes and associated research questions.

MESSAGES AND QUESTIONS

Problem Behaviors Are Correlated

J. David Hawkins and Kathryn Monahan were asked to reflect on the covariance of problem behaviors in adolescence and to highlight its implications. They noted, for example, that delinquency is positively correlated with defiance, truancy, school misbehavior, problem sexual behavior, academic failure, high school dropout, teenage pregnancy, violence, and risky driving. And substance use is positively correlated with early initiation of sexual behavior, low contraceptive use, delinquency, academic failure, violence, and risky driving. Both delinquency and substance use are also correlated with problem health behaviors related to dieting (anorexia), exercise, and wearing a seat belt.

The covariance is stronger during adolescence than at earlier or later developmental stages, they explained. The developmental pattern of problem behavior is shown in Figure 6-1. Problem behaviors tend to

FIGURE 6-1 Developmental pattern of problem behavior across adolescence.

FIGURE 6-1 Developmental pattern of problem behavior across adolescence.

SOURCE: Hawkins and Monahan, 2009.



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